Memories of ACP Japan Chapter Meeting June 8-9, 2019’ Kyoto Japan

Dr. Anuj Maheshwari, MD, FICP, FACE, FACP, FRCP (London, Edinburgh)
Professor & Head in General Medicine, BBD University, Lucknow, India
Organising Secretary, Annual Congress of ACP-India Chapter “Medicine 2018” at Lucknow

It has been my first visit to Japan. I had heard lot of good things about this country but found it much better than of my imagination. It has really been a wonderful experience for me and my family. It has been an excellent hospitality with flawless arrangements from beginning to the end. First of all, I shall like to pay my gratitude to our India Chapter Governor Dr Muruganathan who recommended and given me opportunity to represent India Chapter during annual conference of Japan Chapter. At the same time I can never forget to pay sincere thanks from core of my heart to Dr. Takahiko Tsutsumi and Dr. Tetsuya Makiishi who were our guest speakers in annual conference of ACP-India Chapter 2018 at Lucknow. Not only their deliberations were outstanding here in India but they must had praised us well there in Japan. After receiving a lovely invitation by Dr. Sugihiro Hamaguchi, chair Scientific program committee, ACP Japan Chapter, Dr. Yuka Kitano helped me in understanding the learning objectives of physicians in Japan regarding Diabetes. For me It was really seeming tough to keep audience attentive for one hour of my lecture. Yuka not only encouraged me but also helped me in deciding content to be included in my presentation which can create interest in Japanese audience. Evening before, I got an opportunity to see and pay my gratitude to Governor Japan chapter outgoing and incoming both together with Robert M. McLean, the President of the American College of Physicians (ACP) elected in 2019 with his wife.

As I have been given the topic to speak on treatment options, I tried to focus my talk on common factor between two populations, India & Japan. Although diabetes prevalence is increasing in both the countries, but faster is the progression in India for conspicuous reasons like carbohydrate rich diet, sudden affluence and luxury lifestyle with lack of physical activity. All this has happened in last 20-30 years which has changed typical Asian phenotype in India to overweight and obesity making Indians more prone to diabetes in lack of physical activity. In addition to these reasons our large population is also responsible for ten times more number of diabetic patients. In Japan 7.2 millions are suffering with diabetes while this number is 72 million in India second highest in the world next to China. Diabetes prevalence in Japan is 7.7 % while it is 8.8% in India.

If we really talk about common factors, typical Asian phenotype is actually a common characteristic between people of India and Japan. This typical Asian phenotype is characterised with accumulation of visceral fat with lean phenotype in extremities. Healthy Food habits and good amount of physical activities in Japan keeps away abdominal obesity and insulin resistance at large while in India same phenotype has progressed to abdominal obesity and Insulin resistance causing type 2 diabetes. What I noticed in ten days visit to Japan, plants & vegetables are used in good amount with food but with much less oil and fat contrary to India. Lot of lessons are there for Indians in Japanese life style.

Glucose control in diabetes deteriorates over time with the progressive nature of disease resulting in risk of developing various micro and macro vascular complications. Many classes of anti-diabetic drugs are available for treatment including metformin, sulfonylureas, glitazones, glinides, α glucosidase inhibitors and nearly a century old insulin. Newer drugs like gliptins (DPP-4 inhibitors), GLP1 agonist, flozins (SGLT-2 inhibitors) and insulin analogues have been added to the list during the last few years. These drugs effectively address various pathophysiological defects. However, given the need for multiple drug therapy, there is still a significant unmet need in the management of T2DM. Non-insulin antidiabetic agents have a potential to reduce HbA1c by an average of 1% and the simultaneous use of combination therapy can result in greater HbA1c reduction. Position statement on Standard of Care by ADA, recommends metformin as preferred initial pharmacological agent. Though we Asians do not match exactly with Americans, we need different recommendations to treat diabetes as we are not only different genetically but environmental factors, body habitus are also different.

A lot of questions had arisen out of these recommendations from audience citing Japanese are not usually obese or overweight then why is it necessary to begin treatment with metformin? It is true that Japanese may have many genes susceptible to diabetes including thrifty genes. Various environmental factors, added to these genetic factors, are considered responsible for the onset of disease, and the number of patients is increasing rapidly reflecting recent lifestyle changes. Impaired insulin secretion is characterized by lowered glucose responsiveness. In particular, the decrease in postprandial-phase secretion is an essential pathophysiological condition. Glucolipotoxicity, if left untreated, results in the decrease in the functional pancreatic cell mass. So it is not only an issue to improve insulin sensitivity. Metformin facilitates peripheral utilisation of glucose and equally beneficial in Insulin deficient type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although it may have some concerns for Indians as many of them are vegetarian having Vitamin B12 deficiency causing anaemia but not in Japanese. So it is appropriate selection of pharmaceutical agent which has immense importance. Now further recommendations should continue as follows:

  • If metformin monotherapy at highest tolerated dose does not achieve the optimum level, a second oral or injectable agent should be added.
  • Choice of the second pharmaceutical agent should be a based on environmental factors influencing therapeutic response.

Apart from this AACE suggests to start with dual drug therapy if HbA1c is 7.5 or more. If HbA1c is 9 or more at beginning, triple therapy is recommended to start with. If patient is symptomatic at 9 or more HbA1c, insulin should be a part of triple therapy.

Queries came from audiences regarding relevance of using pharmaceutical agents with weight loss potential in Japanese population like GLP1RA & SGLT-2 Inhibitors. A convincing explanation lies in visceral fat causing abdominal obesity giving rise a peculiar Asian phenotype. SGLT2 inhibitors act on the non-classical pathway and reduce hyperglycaemia by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion.  They also lead mild reduction in blood pressure due to chronic osmotic diuresis and associated with lower risk of hypoglycemia.

SGLT-2 Inhibitors can only be justified if a person is having significant amount of visceral fat reducing insulin sensitivity. It also promotes usage of alternative fuels like fat for production of energy. As far as GLP-1RA is concerned, they increase insulin secretion in response to oral glucose ingestion, induce satiety by slowing gastric emptying, suppresses appetite, inhibit glucagon secretion and also have been proposed to cause ß cell regeneration. Endogenous GLP1 released from intestinal L cells has a short half-life of 4 – 11 min. To overcome this, GLP1 analogues resistant to degradation by DPP4 have been devised. Low dose usage can be safely done for Japanese population with central adiposity.

Later I got an opportunity to judge selected research papers for oral presentations by students, residents, Fellows & early career physicians. One of the most stimulating session with high class research had made it more challenging to decide the best. All research papers and presentations were so good that it was difficult to select one for “Kurokawa Prize”.

Then I got a chance to attend few plenary sessions which were in Japanese language but I am thankful of my interpreter Mr. Hideta Teshirogi who is pursuing his medical studies there. He has been so wonderfully translated all sessions on the spot sitting aside me. I appreciate his knowledge and translation power so fast. My medico daughter Shivangi who is also pursuing medical studies in India enjoyed all English sessions and Kurokawa Prize session.

Overall it has been a wonderful academic feast for me and my family at one of the most beautiful city of world Kyoto. We attended welcome dinner in evening with all attendees and faculties. Next day enjoyed sightseeing at Arashiyama before leaving back home India. It has been an unforgettable experience while being at Japan. I wish to thanks all members of organizing team and Governor Japan Chapter Dr. Kenji Maeda for great conference with wonderful hospitality. We shall surely try our best to reciprocate when Dr. Kenji Maeda comes India for our annual conference at Kolkata. We can plan many joint ventures together including Asia specific guidelines in future.

ACP Japan Chapter Meeting June 8-9 2019’ Kyoto Japan

President of the American College of Physicians

Robert McLean, MD, FACP

I was honored to have the opportunity to participate in the ACP Japan chapter meeting in early June. Chapter governor Dr. Kenji Maeda and the rest of his chapter leaders were wonderful hosts. It was very interesting to hear firsthand from many chapter members about the Japan healthcare system and especially the medical education and training system. I enjoyed the opportunity to speak on the topic and discuss how the current changes in the Japanese training and board certification processes will be very helpful to ensure that internal medicine specialists who choose to enter general primary care practice will have adequate training to deliver high-quality care to patients.

I also had the opportunity to give a brief update on activities of the American College of Physicians and review how Global Engagement and the role of international chapters continues to grow. The Japan Chapter was ACP’s first international chapter and remains a role model for how to grow and develop. I also gave a talk on the ACP’s guideline development process, using the Gout Clinical Practice Guidelines as an example. I explained how different guideline processes between various organizations lead to slightly different conclusions and recommendations. Some in the media tends to report these as controversies, when in reality they merely reflect different processes and the lack of definitive evidence to answer many of the clinical questions we face on a daily basis.

I greatly enjoyed the opportunity to tour the beautiful historic city of Kyoto and learn much about Japanese history and culture there. Following several days in Kyoto, I had the opportunity to travel to Tokyo and similarly tour and learn a great deal while spending several days there before returning home to Connecticut. After such a wonderful experience, I clearly intend to return to Japan! I thank all the Chapter members with whom I had the chance to interact.

 

 

Contemplate the Healthcare Reform

Report from Women’s Committee 2019 June、2019

Chair; Noriko Yamamoto, MD FACP(President of Yamamoto Clinic)

Contemplate the Healthcare Reform.     9 June,2019 AM11:55-14:00

Women’s Committee;

Chair; Noriko Yamamoto, MD FACP

Co-Chair; Noriko Kawashima, MD FACP

Member; Keiko Arai, MD FACP, Yuko Morishima, MD FACP, Eri Matsumoto, MD Ayako Miki, MD

 

1, Become the best hospital many doctors would like to work at.

NPO Corporation Director Dr.Toshiko Takino, MD

2, How the maternity leave system works in the US and how to keep work-life Balance?

Sapporo Tokusyuukai Hospital Dr. Shadia Constantine, MD FACP

3, Diversity management of the Palliative care Division at Iizuka Hospital.

Iizuka Hospital Palliative care Division Director Dr. Hideyuki Kashiwagi MD

4, The approach at Tokyo Women’s Medical School, Now and then, in future. From medical education to re-training as physician after any leave.

Tokyo Women’s Medical School Center of the Adult Diseases. Professor Dr. Noako Iwasaki, MD

5, Career Support multiply Patients Safety equal Work style Reform to have approached For 12 years at Okayama University medical school.

Okayama University medical school Professor Dr. Hitomi Kataoka.MD

 

First speaker Dr. Takino has the corporation E-J net to measure the functions to work comfortably in the hospitals for female physicians. That is called HOPIRATE by Dr. Takino. She told why she has begun this program, she was a physician of gastroenterology and almost got burn-out when she was working the hospital by fulltime back in her days.  She said recently young doctors has been changing to make much of work-life balance and female doctors make things of their personal life , they don’t take care of the patients around time of their return. Other male doctors compensate the patients care after female doctors left and they must work till late hour. The male doctors feel nuisance for that and think female doctors make trouble but are not useful. So HOPIRATE has changed the marks for measurement about working with high motivation not only the conditions of work place with childcare facilities, short time working. The hospital where female doctors are working cheerfully will gather good nurses and office workers and they get more fixed at the hospital, increase the number of patients, they will get more incomes and be happy.

Next speaker is Dr. Shadia Constantine. She was graduated from medical school of Panama and got her residency at US. She has come to Japan as the teaching stuff of the medical education and has three young kids. She told about the maternity leave system in the US. Most of all female physicians can take the maternity leave for about 8weeks. She is working as a teaching physician in Japan and learning at Oxford University.

Third speaker Dr. Hideyuki Kashiwagi has a certified MBA and qualification of social welfare. He affirmed not to admit the stereotype for previous winner. He declare the vision and mission of their division and he and his subordinates pursue to achieve them. He always try to get his subordinates engagement, stimulate their mindsets, share their Why thing. He gave the example the Mikoshi model, Mikoshi is portable shrine. 5 people keep to shoulder the Mikoshi and 2 people come to join, 7 people carry the Mikoshi comfortably but then they feel heavy strangely, 2 person hang the Mikoshi and load them. He told to start conducting easy issues he could do although they have many tough issues.

Fourth speaker Dr. Naoko Iwasaki is Professor of the Tokyo women’s medical school. Tokyo women’s medical school is very unique because the only female students study to become doctors and they perform to educate to become good female doctors and live their lives as doctors. They continue to educate their students why they want to become doctors, they must keep working as physicians. They have had some surveys for alumni association what you are doing. They especially told young female students must have the motivations to become good doctors. Also they perform the work-style reform to go back home at 18 o’clock.

Last speaker is Professor Dr. Hitomi Kataoka. She has a 2 years old baby. She has been working the MUSCAT career center at Okayama University medical school for 12 years. In rural area in Japan the numbers of doctors is running short, in city area especially Tokyo area the numbers of doctors is too much.  She think the working doctors now in Okayama don’t quit and keep working with any personal conditions. Most of all doctors think they must work for their local patients because local medical care will collapse if they would quit to work. She told we have to balance between doctor’s well-being and local medical care continuity. They need the supports from their family, comprehension from co-workers. She told when female doctors is increasing in the hospital the female doctors got to have more motivation for upper titles of academic societies.

We held this long time symposium for about 130 minutes, but I didn’t feel too long. 5 doctors talked different issue from various viewpoints. I felt they all talked we need to change our perception for our well-being and social rules. Generation X and young generations have different wishes and lifestyles. But we will avoid to collapse the local medical care, Dr. Iwasaki and Dr. Kataoka have been working for medical education and making mediating center for re-job placement for long time. It would be most difficult and important that we must have been working for long time to change people’s mindset for equity in gender. But now we must take action for this issue with our colleagues and families.

I felt their each efforts are very venerable they have been working on their own identities. But I felt sorry the participants were very small this day. I think young doctors want to go to the educational sessions. They seem to think the work-life reform is not their issues, older peoples like directors and professors must think and perform that for young doctors. I don’t think young doctors don’t need to involve this issue I rather think they must involve this issue for themselves. And work-style reform is not only for female physicians. I think all the physicians must involve and think of this matter and take actions for it. The hospital that female physicians work comfortably and actively will gather good nurses and co-medical staffs and increase the numbers of patients and incomes. And I think the critical point about work-life reform is Patients First. I think we don’t forget we are working for the patients, not only to increase our medical knowledges and practices for ourselves. We must have the balance between personal life and work. But that will not always keep same balance. Sometimes doctors will make a thing of the work as physician but another time they will make a thing of the personal life. This seems long time challenges. But I think at this matter the important thing is physician’s Professionalism. I think we physicians must keep going upon the Professionalism. And we have to keep up with fast pace of daily life and receive the diversity, I think we have to change the mindset and stereotype about gender .That would be much more challenges.

Finally I would like to thank you for the 5 speakers. And I appreciate to Dr. Noriko Kawashima she designed this symposium and I admire her intelligence and networks. The members of our committee had meetings for respective charge and conducted their own ideas. I am very proud of them and appreciated.

Healthcare Reformを考える。

2019年 ACP日本支部講演会 Women’s Committee企画報告

Women’s Committee委員長 山本典子 やまもとクリニック院長 FACP

Women’s Committee 委員長;山本典子 副委員長;川嶋乃里子

メンバー;新井桂子 森島祐子 松本衣里 三木綾子

「Healthcare Reformを考える。」2019年6月9日 日曜日 11時55分より14時 京都大学 時計台百周年記念講堂 国際交流ホール2

 

  • Opening Remarks :川嶋乃里子先生
  • 働きたくなる病院へ:イージェイネット代表 瀧野敏子先生
  • How the maternity leave system works in the US and how to keep work-life balance?:Sapporo Tokusyuukai Hospital Dr.Shadia Constantine
  • 飯塚病院緩和ケア科のダイバーシティマネージメント:飯塚病院緩和ケア科部長 柏木秀行先生
  • 東京女子医大の取り組み、これまでとこれから。学生から再教育、再就職まで生涯にわたる人材育成と働き方改革:東京女子医大成人病センター教授 岩崎直子先生
  • キャリア支援×患者安全=働き方改革 岡山大学の12年の取り組み:岡山大学大学院医歯薬総合研究科 地域医療人材育成講座 片岡仁美先生

まず瀧野先生は NPO法人をつくりホスピレートという病院評価を行うことをなさっています。これを始めたきっかけなどのお話があり、女性医師が働きやすい病院の評価ということで始めたということですが、若い医師たちのワークライフバランスを重視する人が多くなったという変化や女性医師が時短などの条件で入職し働いても、患者さん重視でなく帰るころには患者をみないとか、自分の生活重視に偏り男性医師に迷惑がかかったりするようなことも出てきて、最近は保育所や時短などの条件面だけではなく、医師がモチベーションを高く持って輝けるようにするということを評価にいれていくよう考えているとのことでした。 また女性医師が働きやすいと、女性ナースやスタッフの定着率もよく、良い人材が集まりやすいということです。またそのために患者さんも増え、収入もあがり、病院としても個人としても豊かになる、という効果があるというお話でした。

次にパナマで医学部を卒業されUSで研修を受けられたDr.Shadia Constantineです。3人のお子さんがおられて ご主人が主夫をなさっているということでした。アメリカには法律としての産休はありませんが、大学や大きな病院ネットワークには規定があり、給与をもらいながら平均8週間くらいは産休を取ることが多いということです。ただし産休をとるのは5分の2くらいということでした。USでの比較検討などのペーパーを示していただきました。

3人目は唯一の男性、飯塚病院の柏木秀行先生です。医師でありながらMBAや社会福祉士の資格もお持ちです。最初に柏木先生は、今までの勝ち組思考はもう通用しないと断言されています。科としての理念、ビジョン、ミッションを明らかにしてその実現を追求していくこと、部下をエンゲージメントする、マインドセットを刺激する、Whyの共有などを実行されているということでした。おみこしを5人で担いでいてなんとかなっていたところ、2人がさらに来た。少し楽になったかと思っていた。でもなんだか重いと思ったら、うち2人がぶら下がっていたということがありうるというお話もありました。難しいこともできることから始めていこうということでした。

4人目は東京女子医大の岩崎直子先生です。日本で唯一の女子だけの医学部ですので、大学としての理念や医師になるための意識教育についての話から始まりました。学生のうちから医師としての自覚、ライフサイクルを考えたキャリア形成、離職しても再教育・再就職できるようにということでセンターを立ちあげて応募者の話を聞き、背中を押し、技術の再教育なども行っているとのことでした。印象的だったのは、なぜ医師になりたいのか、医師として働き続ける意思を持つこと、その中で自分が何をやりたいのかなどを学生の間から実習として先輩の姿を見させたり。、同窓生のアンケートをとり現状を把握したりすることを続けておられることです。特に医師になるということについての動機がないとだめだと主張されていました。また働き方改革としては、早く帰ること、当直明けは早く帰って休むことなどを実行されているということでした。

最後は岡山大学の片岡仁美先生でした。12年にわたり岡山大学で医療人キャリアセンターMuskatセンターでの活動をなさっておられます。働き方改革を行おうとすると地方だと人がどんどん増やせない現状なので、今働いている人をこれ以上やめないで、事情があっても働けるというようにすることが必要と考えられたそうです。ですから現在は女性医師だけではなく、男性や子育てだけでなく介護で時間が必要な人も対象にしているそうです。過労や働く時間が長いと診断エラーも増えるので、医師自身もうつや自殺企図など健康を損なわれることもある、でも目の前に患者さんがいれば やらなければいけない、自分たちがやらなければ医療が崩壊する、若手の研修も十分にできないなどの状況の中で、患者安全と地域医療の継続性、医療人の健康とバランスをとることが必要とお話されています。プロジェクトは、家族のサポート、上下の理解、同僚の理解、適切な労働力が大事とのことでした。色々な具体例をお示しいただきましたが、6人目の立場での復帰という言葉が印象的でした。5人の定員でその枠内で復職すると自分ができないことやわからないことが多かったり、時間的に早く帰ったりすると周りに迷惑をかけるということで心苦しくなり続かない。定員の増員ということでの6人目なら、本人も周りも受け入れやすいということです。このような活動で 女性医師も増えると女性医師の専門医志向も上がったということでした。

それぞれの先生のお話は、お立場も違い、視点も違い、なさっていることも違うように思いました。長時間のシンポジウムでしたが、あっという間に時間がたっていました。その根底には今までの認識が通用しなくなってきている。だがなんとかしなければ医療が崩壊する、患者さんが困るようなことを絶対に避けたいという患者さんや医療全体を大切に思う気持ちと意思があるように思いました。女子医大の取り組みにしても、岡山大学の人材センターのお話にしても、長い時間がかかっているようでしたので、仕組みを変えることも難しいことですが、その中でも、人々のマインドセットを変えることが一番難しいことだと思います。でも変えなければいけない時期に来ているということだと私は感じました。そういう意識を持ってまた周りや同じ意識をもつ同僚などと協力して、地道にやれることから行動を起こし、それを広げていくことが大切かと思いました。

素晴らしい内容だったのですが、参加者が少なかったのがとても残念です。ACPでは教育的なセッションが多いので、若い先生方はそちらの方が興味を引くと思われますし、働き方改革は上の人のやることと思っていたりするのかもしれません。ですが社会性を持って働くことは大切ですし、自分さえよければよいという立場ではないはずですので、こういう分野にも興味を持ってもらいたいと思いました。働き方改革は女性だけの問題ではありません。瀧野先生がおっしゃっていたように、女性医師が気持ちよく元気よく働ければ、病院内に良い循環が生まれると思います。しかし女性医師自身もプロフェッショナリズムの意識をきちんともち、患者さんのためということを一番に考えて、時短でも週3回でも、高い医療レベルを提供するべく努力するべきだと思います。私たちの仕事は有難いことに、働きながら学ぶことができます。色々な患者さんを診察し、治療して 症例の経験として、自分のものにすることができます。毎日が勉強です。一つでも多くの知識を得て、早く立派に尊敬される医師になろうとするならば、多くの患者さんをみて経験することです。医師としての自分と家庭での親としての役割など、どちらを重視したいかは各人違うと思いますし、特に女性は自分の意志とは別に、子育て中で子供が小さいと時間的にも家庭に多くの時間を取られることになるでしょう。ワークライフバランスは個別的でもあり、また時間的な要素もあり、難しい課題だと思います。でも男性も女性も、より高いレベルの医療を行える医師であるために、研鑽を積むことは常に必要ですし、幸福感を感じる日々を過ごすことも、人間として不可欠なことだと思います。いつも完璧に過ごすことは不可能だと思いますし、我慢する時期もあるかと思いますが、自分で選んで 自分で道を見据えて日々を歩んでいけるように、男女ともに方策を考えて続けることが必要だと感じました。またその根底には、患者さんを第一に考えること、地域医療を守ることなどProfessionalismがそれぞれの医師の心にしっかり根付いていることが必要とも思われました。

さらに男性だから女性だからというマインドセットを変える時代になってきているのかと思います。自身でも自分を縛らず、また性差や人種差などに関わらず、お互いを認め、自由にそして効率的に仕事をし、個人生活を充実させられる時代になることが求められていると思います。

最後に、素晴らしいご講演をいただいた5人の先生方に心よりお礼を述べたいと思います。企画を立ててくれた副委員長の川嶋乃里子先生の行動力と情報ネットワークに感服しましたし、WC委員のメンバーは、各担当を決めて打ち合わせに連絡にと特に指示することなく 各自で考えて行動してくれました。委員会のメンバーにも感謝したいと思います。