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侾乯屆忛棽梇丄崟搰僥儗僒丄報撿堦楬丅曐寬偺妶僨乕僞梡丅岤惗偺巜昗丂201158(4)6-14

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丂儀僀僘曗惓偡傞偲丄彫婯柾帺帯懱偱傕巜悢偑弌偣傞丅挿栰偼擼寣娗幘姵SMR偑崅偔丄儌僨儖抧堟偲偼側傝摼側偄丅

 

2)Hao YuRAND尋媶強乯. Universal health insurance coverage for 1.3 billion people: What accounts for China's success? Health Policy 2015:119:1145-1152.

http://www.healthpolicyjrnl.com/pii/full/S0168-8510(15)00186-4

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3)Govindarajan A, Urbach DR, Kumar M et al. Outcome of daytime procedure performed by attending surgeons after night work. N Engl J Med 2015;373(9):845-853.

丂僇僫僟偱偺栭嬑柧偗偺巜摫堛偺悋柊晄懌壓偱偺姵幰梊屻傊偺塭嬁偺専摙丅

1448恖偺奜壢堛乮巜摫堛乯偑38978恖偺姵幰偵12庬椶偺庤媄乮抇擷愗彍丄堓僶僀僷僗丄戝挵愗彍丄姤摦柆僶僀僷僗丄姤摦柆宍惉丄巕媨愗彍丄旼娭愡抲姺丄戝戁崪摢抲姺丄戝戁崪崪愜偺廋暅丄愐捙偺庤弍丄奐摢弍丄攛愗彍乯偵偍偗傞梊屻乮30擔埲撪偺巰朣丄崌暪徢丄嵞擖堾乯偍傛傃嵼堾擔悢傪屻曽帇揑偵夝愅丅

30擔埲撪偺巰朣丄崌暪徢丄嵞擖堾偺棪偼丄怮晄懌堛巘丗偦傟埲奜偱22.2亾丗22.4亾偱桳堄嵎側偟丄嵼堾擔悢傕桳堄嵎側偟丅

 

 

4)徏杮桰婱傎偐丅僶乕儞傾僂僩偍傛傃儚乕僋丒僄儞僎僀僕儊儞僩偺娤揰偐傜暘愅偟偨僐儞價僯庴恌偲堛巘偺廍偆偲偺娭楢惈丅擔杮岞廜塹惗嶨帍丂2015:62(9):556-565.

 

僐儞價僯庴恌偵娭偡傞傾儞働乕僩偲儚乕僋丒僄儞僎僀僕儊儞僩広搙偱偁傞UWES,僶乕儞傾僂僩広偱偁傞tMBI-HSS傪巊梡偟偰夝愅丅僐儞價僯庴恌傪偟偰偄側偄昦堾偺堛巘偼僶乕儞傾僂僩偺斾棪偑掅偄丅柺敀偔側偄丅

 

 

5)Lu H, Holt JB, Cheng YJ et al. Population-based geographic access to endocrinologists in the United States, 2012. BMC Health Services Research 2015;15:541.

 

傾儊儕僇偱撪暘斿撪壢堛偑懌傝側偄偺偱丄嫍棧揑側傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

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20儅僀儖埲撪偺傾僋僙僗嫍棧偼丄0-17嵨恖岥偱64.1%18-64嵨恖岥偱85.4%65嵨埲忋恖岥偱82.1%

 

 

6) Delamater PL. Spatial accessbility in suboptimally configured health care systems: A modified two-step floating catchment area (M2SFCA) metric. Health Place 2013;24:30-43.

 

2僗僥僢僾僼僅儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄乮嫙媼丒廀梫偲偦偺娫偺嫍棧偱傾僋僙僗傪夝愅乯傪梡偄偨丄堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗搙偺夝愅丅

 

 

7) Takaku R. Effects of reduced cost-sharing on children's health: Evidence from Japan. Soc Sci Med 2016;151:46-55.

 

仜擕偺摫擖傪201310寧偵慡巗挰懞偵挷嵏偟丄1995擭偐傜2010擭偺廇妛慜帣偲妛摱偺寬峃忬懺乮崙柉惗妶婎慴挷嵏乯偲偺娫偱専摙丅廇妛慜帣偼丄仜擕偱徢忬偑2.8%掅壓偟偨偑丄妛摱偱偼偦偺岠壥側偟丅傑偨丄廇妛慜帣偲妛摱偺擖堾傊偺岠壥傕側偟丅

 

 

8) Dunn OJ. Multiple comparisons using rank sums. Technometrics 1964;6:241-252.

IBM SPSS偺旕僷儔儊僩儕僢僋側懠孮斾妑偵偍偗傞孮娫斾妑偺曽朄丅

 

倠孮偲l孮偺弴埵榓TkTl傪偦傟偧傟偺搙悢値k偲値l偱妱偭偨抣傪斾妑偟丄偦偺昗弨曃嵎偱妱偭偨抣偱倸専掕丅

 

 

9)暿強弐堦榊丅巕偳傕偺堛椕旓彆惉丒捠堾丒寬峃丅婫姧幮夛曐忈尋媶丂2012;47(4):413-430.

 

丒崙柉惗妶婎慴挷嵏偺屄昜偲乽慡崙巗挰懞堛椕旓彆惉惂搙乿偵婰嵹偝傟偨惂搙偲偺夝愅丅丒彫妛惗偼仜擕偱奜棃庴恌憹偊傞丅

丒枹廇妛帣傊偺仜擕偲奜棃庴恌岠壥偲偼塭嬁偼側偟丅

丒夁嫀1偐寧偵彴偵偮偄偨偐斲偐偼塭嬁側偟丅

 

 

10)Saleh S, Mourad Y, Dimassi H et al. Distribution and predictors of emergency department charges: the case of a tertiary hospital in Lebanon. BMC Health Services Res 2016;16:97.

 

儗僶僲儞偺3師媬媫堛椕婡娭1巤愝偺媬媫奜棃偱偺堛椕旓偺暘晍偺夝愅偲偦偺梊應場巕偺夝愅丅2012731擔偐傜2014731擔傑偱偺恌椕僨乕僞儀乕僗95879椺偐傜偺夝愅丅

丒崌寁偱偼40%偑堛巘charge26.1%偑巤愝棙梡旓乮facillityfee)

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丒廳徢搙偑崅偄傎偳丄堛巘傗巤愝偵暐偆妟偺斾棪掅壓乮懠偺専嵏丄曻幩慄丄栻嵻摍偵棳傟傞偲偄偆偙偲丠乯

 

 

11)Kitazawa T, Igami T, Sampei Z et al. A bispecific antibody to factor IXa nad X restores factor VIII hemostatic activity in a hemophilia A model. Nature Med 2012;18:1570-1574.

 

IXaX偺椉曽偵斀墳偡傞峈懱傪梡偄偰VIII場巕妶惈傪摼傞丅

 

 

12)揷曈榓弐丄楅栘岶峅丅弌惗棪偺搒摴晎導奿嵎偺暘愅丅岤惗偺巜昗丂2016;5:13-21

僒億乕僩儀僋僞乕儅僔儞偵傛傞弌惗棪偺奿嵎偲側傞場巕偺摿掕丅崶堶棪乮惓丗擭娫摉偨傝偺崶堶撏偗偺庴棟審悢/恖岥乯丄抝惈幐嬈棪乮晧乯丄彈惈娗棟怑棪乮晧乯丄彈惈媔墝棪乮晧乯丄弌棃崶棪乮惓乯丄昦彴悢乮惓乯摍偑塭嬁丅曐堢娭學乮曐堢強旓梡丄曐堢強棙梡丄曐堢強悢丄懸婡帣摱乯偼憡娭側偄丅

 

 

13)Sampei Z, Igawa T, Soeda T et al. Identification and multidimensional optimization of an asymmetric bispecific IgG antibody mimicking the function of Factor VIII cofactor activity. PLoS One 2013;8(2):e57479.

 

IXaX偺椉曽偵斀墳偡傞峈懱傪梡偄偰VIII場巕妶惈傪摼偨傕偺偺夵椙丅椉曽偵斀墳偡傞峈懱偼丄堚揱巕儗儀儖偱夵曄丅

 

 

14)Jackman J, Chen Y, Huang A et al. Development of a two-part strategy to identify a therapeutic human bispecific antibody that inhibits IgE receptor signaling. J Biol Chem 2010;285:20850-20859.

 

2庬椶偺峈尨偵斀墳偡傞峈懱傪専弌偡傞媄弍偺奐敪丅寠偲偱偭傁傝偺曄堎偱暿偺峈尨偲傕寢崌偱偒傞廳嵔晹暘偺嶌惉偟丄2庬椶偺峈尨偲斀墳偡傞峈懱傪嶌惉乮寉嵔丒廳嵔偼2庬椶偺戝挵嬠偱嶌惉偟丄僾儘僥僀儞A偱夞廂偟丄傾僯乕儖偝偣傞乯丅

 

 

15)愺栰棾懢榊丄孎扟愹丅僞儞僷僋幙崅岺妛傪嬱巊偟偨崅婡擻惈擇廳摿堎惈峈懱偺奐敪丅惗壔妛丂2014;86:469-473.

擇廳摿堎惈峈懱偺憤愢丅僴僀僽儕僪乕儅傪2庬椶梈崌偡傞僋儚僪儘乕儅朄傗丄CH3椞堟偵knobs-into-hole曄堎傪嶌惉偡傞曽朄偑偁傞丅

 

 

16)Merchant AM, Zhu Z, Yuan JQ et al. An efficient route to human bispecific IgG. Nature Biotechnology 1998;16:677-681.

 

H嵔傪寠偲偱偭傁傝偺曄堎偲S-S寢崌偺曄堎乮Cys偺彍嫀丠乯偵傛傝曄宍偝偣2庬椶偺峈懱偺僿僥儘側寢崌傪夵慞丅sitte-directed mutagenesis偱曄堎堚揱巕傪嶌傝丄恖戀帣恡憻嵶朎偱敪尰丅

 

17)暯嶳廆峅丅擕梒帣寬峃巟墖堦帪梐偐傝帠嬈偺幚懺挷嵏曬崘丅擔杮巕偳傕壠掚憤崌尋媶強婭梫丅2003;39:253-261

 

丒昦帣曐堢偺楌巎丗徍榓41擭偵悽揷扟嬫偱乽昦帣曐堢強僶儞價乿偑巒傑傝丅

丒暯惉3擭偵岤惗徣帣摱壠掚嬊挿偵乽偙傟傜偐偺曣巕堛椕偵娭偡傞専摙夛乿曬崘彂採弌丅摨擭丄慡崙昦帣曐堢嫤媍夛敪懌丅

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18)koike Y, Yanagisawa R, Ogiso Y, et al. Transient deformatuon of neutrophiles in Kawasaki Disease. J Pediatr 2016;173:238-241.

IVIG偑岠偐側偄愳嶈昦偱偼丄岲拞媴偺pseudo-Pelger-Huet婏宍乮岲拞媴偺2暘梩偑fine傑偨偼thin僼傿儔儊儞僩偱寢崌偟慹戝側奺僋儘儅僠儞傪桳偡傞乯偺弌尰偑崅偄丅偙偺婱孼偼丄寣塼庮釃傗媫惈姶愼徢丄帺屓柶塽幘姵偱尒傜傟丄G-CSF偑娭學偟偰偄傞傜偟偄丅

 

 

19)Wei J, Rosen P, Greenspan JS. Physician burnout: What can chairs, chiefs, and institutions do? J Pediatr 2016; 175: 5-6.

 

傾儊儕僇偱偼44亾偐傜54亾偺彫帣壢堛偑擱偊恠偒偵捈柺偟偰偄傞丅偟偨偑偭偰丄尋廋幚巤幰偼丅擱偊恠偒懳嶔偲偟偰丄怑応偺旀楯搙偺寁應丄擱偊恠偒傪杊偖偨傔偺楢実丄堛巘傊偺暦偒庢傝丄懳嶔偺岞奐摍傪偡傋偒偱偁傞丅

 

 

20Sepulveda MJ, Roebuck MC, Fronstin P et al. Elimination of the out-of-pocket charge for children's primary care visits: An application of value-based insurance desig. J pediatr 2016;175:195-200.

 

IBM幮偱201011擔偵18嵨枹枮偺庴恌偵偍偗傞帺屓晧扴傪慡攑偟偨偑丄偦偺慜屻2擭娫乮200811擔偐傜20091231vs201011擔偐傜20111231擔乯偺庴恌峴摦偺斾妑丅

 

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21)Rodriguez-Puente R, Lazo-Cortes MS. Algorithm for shortest path in geographic information systems by using reduced graphs. SpringerPlus 2013;2:291.

 

儖乕僩専嶕偺僟僀僋僗僩儔朄偺夵椙斉偺夝愢丅拞恎偼偝偭傁傝傢偐傜偢丅

 

 

22)搰揷婱恗丄尨揷朙丅悢抣抧恾2500傪梡偄偨奨嬫戙昞揦偺嶼弌丅GIS-棟榑偲墳梡丅200311(1)101-107

 

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23)Dijekstra EW. A note on two problems in connexion with graphs. Numerische Mathematik 1959;1:269-271.

 

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24)Herman RE, Koppa D, Sullivan P. sick -child daycare promotes healing and staffing. Nurs Manage 1999;30(4),46-47.

 

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25)Jordan AE. The unsolved child care dilemma: Care for the acutely ill child. Rev Infect Dis 1986; 8(4): 626-630.

 

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26)Landis S, Chang A.Child care options for ill children. Pediatrics 1991;88:705-718.憤榑

 

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侾乯怑応偼巕偳傕偺昦婥媥壣傗廮擃側摥偒曽傪採嫙偡傋偒

俀乯曐堢強偼昦帣曐堢傪偡傋偒

俁乯曐岇幰偼廮擃側摥偒曽傪庤偵擖傟偨傝丄巕嫙偑昦婥偺帪偵桭恖傗嬤強偺椡傪庁傝傠丅係乯幮夛偼昦帣曐堢偺懱惂傪嶌傟丅

 

 

27)Brady MT. Infectios disease in pediatric out-of-home child care. Am J Infect Control 2005;33(5):276-285.乮庡偵姶愼梊杊偺婰弎偑庡懱乯

 

丒擭偵13擔巕偳傕偺昦婥偺偨傔偵壠懓偼楯摥擔傪幐偆丅

丒摥偔曣恊偺壠懓奜傊偺巕偳傕偺梐偗偺40%偼恊偣偒傗桭恖丅

丒曐堢強偱偺姶愼偺儕僗僋偼崅偄丅摿偵丄忋婥摴墛丄拞帹墛丄堓挵墛丄CMV丄嵶嬠惈悜枌墛丅

 

 

28)Rodgers FS, Morgan G, Fredericks BC. Caring for the ill child in day care. J Sch Health 1986;56(4):131-133.

 

丒傾儊儕僇偺54%偺巕偳傕偺曣恊偑奜偱摥偄偰偄傞丅

丒巕偳傕偺昦婥偼寉偔偰傕曐堢娐嫬傪曄偊傞昁梫偑偁傞偺偱丄摥偔曣恊偺擸傒偺庬偱偁傞丅

丒昦帣曐堢偼惌嶔扴摉幰偵娭怱偑掅偔丄懡偔偺廈偱昦帣偼曐堢強偐傜攔彍偝傟傞丅

丒偦偙偱丄昦帣曐堢偺係儌僨儖傪採帵

侾乯捠忢偺曐堢強偱偺夞暅幒

俀乯壠懓揑側夞暅曐堢巤愝

俁乯壠偵曐堢巑偺攈尛

係乯昦堾彫帣壢傗曐堢強偲偺楢実偱奐偔昦帣曐堢巤愝丅

 

 

29)Giebink GS. Care for the ill child in day-care settings. Pediatrics 1993;91(1):229-233.Not intersting

 

丒儈僱僜僞巗偺挷嵏偱偼丄巕偳傕偺昦婥偵傛傞擭娫寚嬑悢偼丄45%1偐傜3擔丄36%4偐傜10擔丄2%10擔埲忋偱偁偭偨丅

1985擭偺摥偔曣恊傊偺傾儞働乕僩偱偼丄巕偳傕偺昦婥偵傛傞寚嬑偼丄65%1偐傜5擔丄17%6偐傜10擔丄5%10擔埲忋偱偁偭偨丅

丒昦帣曐堢偺僷僞乕儞偼

侾乯壠偵曐堢巑摍傪攈尛

俀乯恊偣偒偵傛傞曐堢

俁乯捠忢偺曐堢強偱昦寬帣崿偤偰偺曐堢側偄偟偼昦帣偺傒偺妘棧曐堢

係乯昦帣曐堢巤愝偺棙梡

偑偁傞丅

丒偍偍偔偺捠忢曐堢偱偼丄昦帣偼攔彍偝傟傞丅

丒曐堢強摍偱偺攔彍傪偡傋偒偐偡傋偒偱側偄偐偺昦忬偵娭偟偰AAP偼僈僀僪儔僀儞傪弌偟偰偄傞丅

 

 

30)LoJacono S. Mildly ill/backup child care: a benefit for employees and employers. Empl Benefits J 2000;25(4):48-51.

 

丒昦帣傊偺僒億乕僩偑怑応偵偁傞偲撍慠偺寚嬑偑旔偗傜傟傞丅

丒椉恊偼擭娫俆擔偐傜俀俋擔巕偳傕偺偨傔偵寚嬑偡傞丅

丒枅擔35枩恖偺14嵨埲壓偺巕嫙偑曐堢強傗妛峑傪媥傓丅

84%埲忋偑嫟摥偒悽懷偱偁傞丅

丒巕偳傕偑昦婥偺帪偺僒億乕僩傪偡傞婇嬈偼15%

丒慡暷偵350偺昦帣曐堢巤愝偑偁傞丅

丒侾僪儖偺昦帣曐堢傊偺僒億乕僩偱夛幮偼俀偐傜俁僪儖偺懝幐傪杊偖偙偲偑偱偒傞丅

 

 

31)愇愳夒弐丅抧棟忣曬僔僗僥儉傪梡偄偨慡崙偺暘曍堛椕婡娭偵懳偡傞傾僋僙僗偺専摙丅擔杮堛椕宱塩妛夛帍丂2016;9(1):5-11.

 

GIS傪梡偄偨廃嶻婜巤愝偲廧柉偲偺嫍棧偺夝愅丂丅

H22偺岎捠僙儞僒僗傪梡偄偨儅乕働僢僩傾僫儔僀僓乕偱寁應丅

丒巗嬫挰懞偺弌惗悢傪1僉儘儊僢僔儏偱婰嵹偝傟偨0-4嵨恖岥偱埪暘丅

丒暘曍堛椕婡娭2525巤愝丄憤崌丒抧堟廃嶻婜僙儞僞乕292巤愝丄嶻晈恖壢忢嬑10柤埲忋偺巤愝偲偺摴楬偱偺堏摦帪娫傪應掕丅

 

 

32)Scapinello MP, Posocco A, Ronch ID et al. Predictors of emergency department referral in patients using out-of-hours primary seivices. Health Policy 2016;120:1001-1007.

 

丒僀僞儕傾杒搶晹偺1師媬媫5217椺偺2師媬媫傊偺徯夘偺夝愅丅徯夘棪偼丄8.7%

丒徯夘偺梊抦場巕偼丄擭楊丄夘岇巤愝擖強丄扴摉堛偺墲恌丄怱幘姵丄徚壔婍幘姵丄奜彎偱偁偭偨丅

 

 

33)Kuriyama A, Umakoshi N, Fijinaga J et al. Impact of attending physicians' comments on residents' workloads in the emergency department: results from two J(^o^)PAN randomaized controlled trials. PLoS One 2016 11(12):e0167480. DOI:10.1371/journal.prone.0167480.

 

暯擔偺奜棃媬媫姵幰偲媬媫揮憲姵幰偵娭偟偰丄巜摫堛偑乽崱擔偼惷偐偩偲偄偄側乿偲偺尵梩傪尵偭偨孮偲偦偆偱側偄孮偱尋廋堛偺晧壸偑偳偆曄傢傞偐5揰昡壙偱帵偟偨丅

 

丒奜棃媬媫姵幰偱偼丄巜摫堛偺尵梩偺桳柍偱姵幰悢傗朲偟偝偲偄偭偨晧壸偼曄傢傜偢丅

丒媬媫揮憲姵幰偵偮偄偰偼丄朲偟偝傗崲擄偝偼曄傢傜側偄偑丄尵梩偑偁偭偨孮偱偼揮憲姵幰偑桳堄偵懡偐偭偨丅

乮寢榑乯

巜摫堛偑乽峳傟側偄偲偄偄偹乿偲偄偆偲昦搹偑峳傟傞偲偺僕儞僋僗偑偁傞偑丄尋廋堛偺晧壸偵戝偒側塭嬁偼梌偊側偐偭偨丅

 

 

34)Tsugawa Y, Jena AB, Figueroa JF et al. Comparison of hospital mirtality and readmission rates for Medicare patients treated by male vs female physicians. JAMA Internal Medicine 2016,Dec 19. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.7875

 

抝惈堛巘偲彈惈堛巘偱偼彈惈堛巘偺曽偑丄僈僀僪儔僀儞傗EBM偵廬偆偑偦偺梊屻偵娭偡傞夝愅偼側偄丅偦偙偱丄201111擔偐傜20141231擔偵擖堾偟偨65嵨埲忋偺儊僨傿働傾擖堾姵幰偺20%偱偁傞1,583,028(巰朣乯丄1,540,797恖乮嵞擖堾乯偺30擔埲撪偺巰朣棪乮彈惈堛巘11.07%懳抝惈堛巘11.49%乯偲嵞擖堾棪乮彈惈堛巘15.02%懳抝惈堛巘15.57%乯傪摨偠昦堾偺抝惈偲彈惈偺昦搹堛乮hospitalist乯偱斾妑丅

 

彈惈堛巘偺曽偑巰朣棪丄嵞擖堾棪偼掅偄丅

 

 

35)Graves BA. Integrative literature review: A review of literature related to geographical information systems, healthcare access, and health outcomes. Perspect Health Inf Menag2008;5:11.

 

丒堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偲寬峃偺巜昗偲偺抧棟揑側夝愅偺憤愢丅

丒傾儊儕僇偺堛妛尋媶強偲DHHS乮曐寬徣乯偑傾僋僙僗偲寬峃巜昗偲偺娭楢傪挷傋傞傋偒偲偟偨丅

19951寧偐傜200412寧偺乽GISandhealthcare access乿偱専嶕偟偰暥專廂廤丅

乮寬峃巜昗偵娭偡傞尋媶乯

丒僐僱僠僇僢僩廈偺儔僀儉昦偺敪惗応強傪儅僢僺儞僌偟偨榑暥偑偁傞丅

丒枹崶偺10戙偺弌嶻偲幮夛揑側攚宨偺GIS夝愅傕偁傞丅

丒恖庬偛偲丄抧堟偛偲偺擕偑傫偺巰朣棪傪GIS偱帵偟偨榑暥傕偁傞丅

AIDS偺敪惗棪偲僇儕僯攛墛偺敪惗棪偲偺偽傜偮偒傪GIS偱帵偡榑暥偑偁傞丅

丒儕僆僨僕儍僱僀儘偺儗僗僩僗僺儔徢偺廤抍敪惗傪GIS偱帵偡榑暥偑偁傞丅

乮傾僋僙僗偍傛傃寬峃巜昗偵娭偡傞尋媶乯

丒梄曋斣崋偛偲偵僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偲寬峃巜昗偲偺娭楢傪夝愅偡傞榑暥偑偁傞丅

丒擼懖拞偵傛傞巰朣棪傪幮夛宱嵪揑側場巕傪梡偄偰GIS偱帵偡榑暥偑偁傞丅

丒擼峓嵡傊偺慄梟嵻搳梌壜擻抧堟偺壜帇壔傪峴偭偨榑暥偑偁傞丅媬媫斃憲偺僨乕僞儀乕僗傪梡偄偰丄120暘埲撪偵堛椕婡娭偵摓払偱偒傞僄儕傾傪壜帇壔丅偟偐偟丄捈慄嫍棧偱偺夝愅偱偁傝丄堏摦帪娫傪昁偢偟傕昞偡傕偺偱偼側偄丅

丒媬媫奜棃傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅傕偁傞丅

 

 

36)彫殸棿栫丄愳嶈峃姲丄搶栰攷旻丄懠丅彫帣堛椕採嫙懱惂峔憐偲巕偳傕堛椕寳愝掕偺昁梫惈乕仹傪棙梡偟偨戝嶃晎壓偺彫帣擖堾姵幰偺慡悢攃埇偐傜傒偊偰偔傞傕偺丅擔杮堛帠怴曬丂2008440075-80

 

丒暯惉18擭搙偺戝嶃偺彫帣擖堾姵幰51405柤偺嫃廧抧傪梄曋斣崋偱尒偨慡悢攃埇挷嵏乮10昦堾偺傒曗懌偱偒偢乯丅

丒朙擻丄拞壨撪丄撿壨撪丄戝嶃巗杒晹丄戝嶃巗搶晹偑棳擖抧堟丄杒壨撪丄戝嶃巗撿晹偑棳弌抧堟丅

丒嶰搰丄嶄丄愹廈偑帺媼帺懌孹岦丅

丒擇師堛椕寳偵偼姵幰偺摦偒偑廂傑傜側偄偺偱丄暿偵巕偳傕堛椕寳偑昁梫丅偙偺偨傔丄擇師堛椕寳傪庡懱偲偟偨抧堟彫帣壢僙儞僞乕峔憐偵偼斸敾揑丅

 

 

37)擇栘棫丅崱屻偺挻崅楊丒彮巕幮夛傪偳偆傒傞偐丠-堛椕丒幮夛曐忈夵妚傪椻惷偵尒捈偡偨傔偺慜採丅擔杮堛帠怴曬丂20174838:16-17

 

丒彮巕崅楊壔偑恑傫偱傕丄廬懏擭楊恖岥偺斾棪偼崅楊幰偑憹偊偰傕巕嫙偑彮側偔偱偦偺斾棪偼偁傑傝曄傢傜側偄偺偱丄晑梴晧扴偼憹戝偟側偄丅

丒栚昗擭偑2015擭偐傜2035=40擭傊偲曄壔偟偰偄傞丅

 

 

38)Pluymen LPM, Smit HA, Wijga AH et al. Cesarian delivery, overweight throughout childhood, and blood pressure in adolescence. J Pediatr 2016;179:111-117.

 

丒僆儔儞僟偺僐儂乕僩乮1996擭偲97擭偵嶲壛乯2641恖偱掗墹愗奐偲偦偆偱側偄巕嫙偺4812嵨偺恎挿懱廳偲12嵨丄16嵨偺寣埑傪應掕丅

丒懱廳偼掗墹愗奐帣偑52%旍枮乮BMI偺僇僢僩僆僼抣埲忋乯偺儕僗僋崅偄丅偟偐偟丄寣埑偵偼塭嬁側偟丅峫嶡偱偼丄旍枮娭楢偺挵撪嵶嬠偵偦偺尨場傪媮傔偰偄傞丅

 

 

39)Feikin DR, Nguyen LM, Adazu K, et al. The impact of distance of residence from a peripheral health facility on pediatric health utilisation in rural western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health 2009;14(1):54-61.

 

丒傾僙儞儃抧嬫乮55000恖丄75懞乯偱偺恌椕強傊偺彫帣壢庴恌偲帺戭偐傜恌椕強傊偺嫍棧乮捈慄嫍棧乯偲偺GIS夝愅丅ArcView傪巊梡丅

200351擔偐傜2004430擔傑偱偺1擭娫偺庴恌夝愅丅5嵨枹枮10973恖拞3501夞偺庴恌傪夝愅丅廧柉偺恌椕強傑偱偺嫍棧偺拞墰抣偼2.07km丅庴恌幰偺恌椕強傑偱偺嫍棧偺拞墰抣偼2.01km

丒庴恌帪偺堏摦庤抜偼傎傏曕偒偺傒丅

丒庴恌夞悢偼億儚僜儞暘晍偵増偆偲壖掕丅

丒庴恌棪偼嫍棧偑0.5km憹偊傞偛偲偵4km傑偱偼尭彮丄埲屻偼尭彮側偟丅

丒幮夛宱嵪揑梫場丄曣恊偺嫵堢丄壠掚偱偺巕嫙偺悢偱曗惓偡傞偲丄恌椕強傑偱偺嫍棧偑1km墑挿偡傞偲34%庴恌夞悢偑尭傞丅

 

 

40)Maheswaran R, Pearson T, Munro J et, al. Impact of NHS walk-in centers on primary care access times: ecologocal study. BMJ 2007; 7598:838-841.

丒僂僅乕僋僀儞僋儕僯僢僋乮弶婜恌椕NS偑巇愗傝丄傾億晄梫乯偑偁傞偲丄GP庴恌偺懸偪帪娫偑抁偔側傞偐偳偆偐傪僀僊儕僗偺2509GP32僂僅乕僋僀儞僋儕僯僢僋偱夝愅丅

20034寧偐傜200412寧偺夝愅丅

丒僂僅乕僋僀儞僋儕僯僢僋偺懚嵼偼丄GP傊偺庴恌偺懸偪帪娫傪抁弅偟側偄丠丅

丒僂僅乕僋僀儞僙儞僞乕愝抲偱GP庴恌偺戙梡偲側傞偺偱偼側偔丄僂僅乕僋僀儞僋儕僯僢僋偲GP偺廳暋庴恌偑惗偠傞偱偼側偄偐偲峫嶡丅

 

 

41)Schuurman N, Fiedler RS, Grzybowski SCW, et al. Defining rational hospital catchments for non-urban areas based on travel-time. Int J Healtyh Geogr 2006; 5: 43.

Arc GIS偲僱僢僩儚乕僋傾僫儕僔僗丄儘乕僪傾僩儔僗BC僨乕僞僙僢僩丄僙儞僒僗傪梡偄偨僇僫僟BC廈偺傊偒抧偺60暘恖岥僇僶乕棪傪夝愅丅

丒昦堾偐傜60暘寳撪偵恖岥偺95.1%丄廤拞帯椕巤愝偺60暘寳撪偵84.0%丄暘曍巤愝偺60暘寳撪偵79.9%偑嫃廧丅

丒堏摦帪娫偲捈慄嫍棧偱偺悇掕帪娫偲偱僇僶乕恖岥斾棪偼傎偲傫偳曄傢傜側偄偑丄僇僶乕僄儕傾偺宍偑捈慄偱偼墌偵側傞斀柺丄堏摦帪娫偱偼摴楬増偄偵嵶挿偔側傞丅

 

 

42)Toyabe S, Kouhei A. Referral from secondary care and to aftercare in tertiary care university hospital in Japan. BMC Health Serv Res 2006;6:11.

丒怴妰戝妛昦堾彫帣壢傊偺擖堾夝愅丅ArcGIS傪巊梡丅20044寧偐傜20053寧擖堾暘丅

丒嫃廧抧偼崙惃挷嵏偺2僉儘儊僢僔儏傪巊梡丅僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅傕丅

62.1%偑戝妛昦堾偵捈愙擖堾偟丄82.8%偑戅堾屻傕戝妛偱僼僅儘乕丅

丒戝妛昦堾偺嬤偔偺嫃廧幰偼擇師堛椕婡娭偐傜偺徯夘偱偼側偔捈愙擖堾偟丄墦妘抧偱偼擇師堛椕婡娭偐傜偺徯夘丅

丒戝妛昦堾偑愱栧巤愝偲偟偰摿壔偟偰偄側偄丅

 

 

43)Yoo KB, Ahn HU, Park EC et al. Impact of co-payment for outpatient utilization among medical aid bebeficiaries in Korea: a 5-year time series study. Health Policy 2016;120(8):960-966.

丒堛椕晑彆(摥偗側偄恖乯偵偍偄偰20077寧偵奜棃帺屓晧扴偑摫擖丅

乮堦師堛椕偵1000僂僅儞丄擇師堛椕偵1500僂僅儞丄嶰師堛椕偵2000僂僅儞丄張曽偵500僂僅儞丄堾奜張曽偵900僂僅儞乯丅擖堾偼晄梫丅

丒堛椕晑彆幰偼丄183枩恖丄慡崙柉偺3.8%

20067寧偐傜20116寧偺410142恖偺奜棃捛愓丅

20076寧偵斾傋偰20087寧偵偼1恖偁偨傝0.16夞丄20107寧偵偼0.06夞尭彮丅

丒帺屓晧扴偼20076寧偵斾傋偰20107寧偵偼1恖摉偨傝4.11僪儖憹壛丅

丒帺屓晧扴摫擖偼奜棃夞悢傪尭傜偣傞偑丄奜棃傗擖堾偱偺僐僗僩傪僐儞僩儘乕儖偱偒側偄偺偱丄憤僐僗僩偼憹偊傞丅

 

 

44)Dulin MF, Ludden TM, Tapp H et al. Using geographic information systems (GIS) to understand a community's primary care needs. J Am Board Fam Med 2010;23:13-21.

2007擭偺媬媫奜棃傗僙乕僼僥傿乕僱僢僩偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾偺奺抧嬫偺庴恌棪丄奺抧嬫偺廂擖丄恖岥枾搙丄曐尟偺壛擖偺桳柍側偳傪壛枴偟偰丄堛椕偺昁梫搙偑崅偄抧嬫傪摨掕丅

丒儌僨儖抧堟偼僇儘儔僀僫廈偺儊僢働儖僶乕僌抧嬫丅

 

 

45)Lawson FL, Schuurman N, Oliver et al. Evaluating potential spatial access to trauma center care by severely injured patients. Health Place 2013;19:131-137.亂廳梫亃

丒僇僫僟偺廳徢奜彎帠椺偺奜彎僙儞僞乕傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

丒廳彎偲偼巰朣丄側偄偟偼丄廳彎巜悢乮ISS)15揰埲忋丅

丒姵幰偺廧強偼梄曋斣崋傪棙梡丅庴彎抧揰偺僨乕僞偼側偄偨傔丅

丒斃憲帪娫夝愅偼丄ArcGIS偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅傪棙梡丅

68.5%偺姵幰偼儗儀儖侾傗俀偺奜彎僙儞僞乕偵1帪娫埲撪偱摓払偱偒傞丅

 

 

46)Yamashita T, Kunkel SR. The association between heart disease mortality and geographic access to hospitals: county level comparisons in Phio, USA. Soc Sci Med 2010;70:1211-1218.

丒昦堾傑偱捈慄嫍棧偲巰朣棪偺娭學傪僆僴僀僆廈偱夝愅丅

丒挷惍側偟偺僨乕僞偱偼丄嫍棧偑墦偄曽偑巰朣棪偑崅偄偑丄幮夛宱嵪揑丄幮夛恖椶妛揑側挷惍傪偡傞偲桳堄嵎側偟丅

 

 

47)Scott PA, Temovsky CJ, Lawrence K et al. Analysis of Canadian population with potenrial geographic access to intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischmeic stroke. Stroke 1998;29:2304-3210.

TPA帯椕乮敪徢屻3帪娫埲撪乯偺壜擻寳堟偺夝愅丅ArcView3.0傪巊梡丅

丒恌抐偵1帪娫偐偐傞偲壖掕偟丄120暘埲撪偺60暘丄90暘丄120暘摓払寳偺憡摉偡傞3264105噏偺捈慄嫍棧寳偺僇僫僟偺恖岥夝愅丅

3264丄丂105Km寳偵丄僇僫僟恖岥偺67.3%78.2%85.3%偑嫃廧偟丄65嵨埲忋恖岥偱偼64.4%77.0%85.7%偑奩摉丅

 

 

48)Brabyn L, Barnett R. Population need and geographical access to general practitioners in rural New Zealand. N Z Med J 2004;117(1199):U996.

丒堏摦帪娫偲嫍棧偱抧曽偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗傪GIS傪梡偄偰NZ38366抧嬫偵偮偄偰幚巤丅

丒恖岥懳堛巘悢斾丄GP傊偺嵟抁嫍棧丄擖庤壜擻側GP偺悢偲恌椕偡傞堛巘摉偨傝偺懳徾恖悢傪寁嶼丅

丒嵟抁嫍棧偼ArcINFO偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

30暘埲撪偺庴恌偑柍棟側恖岥斾棪傪夝愅丅

NZ崙柉偺1.9%偑庴恌偵30暘埲忋偺堏摦昁梫丅

 

 

49)Ikegami N, Campell JC. health care reform in Japan: the virtues of muddling through. Health Aff 1999;18:56-75.(憤愢乯

丒擔杮偼旓梡偑埨偔偰岞暯側堛椕傪採嫙偟偰偄傞丅

丒儐僯僶乕僒儖僇僶儗乕僕偲岞暯側堛椕偑埨偄僐僗僩偱採嫙偝傟偰偒偨丅

 

 

50)Lovett A,Haynes R,Sunnenberg G st al.Car travel and accessibility by bus to generarl practitioner services: a study using patient registers andGIS. Soc Sci Med 2002;55:97-111.

丒僀僊儕僗搶傾儞僌儕傾抧嬫偱偺廧柉搊榐偲GP偺恌椕強偲偺娫偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

ArcINFO傪巊梡丅

丒帺摦幵偱GP傑偱10暘埲忋偐偐傞廧柉偼慡懱偺10%

 

 

51)Liu L, Hader J, Brossart B et al. Impact of rural hospital closure in Saskatchewan, Canada. Soc Sci Med 2001;52:1793-1804.

丒僒僠儏僇僠儏儚儞廈偱傊偒抧昦堾偑52巤愝柍彴壔偝傟偨偺偱寬峃傊偺塭嬁傪夝愅丅

丒暵嵔偼廧柉偺寬峃偵塭嬁傪梌偊側偐偭偨丅

丒曽朄丗娗棟僨乕僞偺夝愅巜昗丗1000恖摉偨傝偺擖堾幰悢丄擖堾悢丠丄1000恖摉偨傝偺擖堾擔悢丠乯丄廧柉傊偺揹榖挷嵏(26嵨埲忋偺5270恖乯丄僼僅乕僇僗僌儖乕僾傊偺暦偒庢傝丅

丒昦堾偺暘妱偲巰朣棪偺帒椏傕丅

丒擖堾偐傜嵼戭偺曽岦傊堏峴丅

丒暵嵔偝傟偨挰偱偼丄捈嬤偺昦堾傑偱暯嬒51噏丅

丒揹榖暦偒庢傝偱偼丄89%偑昦堾暵嵔偑寬峃偵塭嬁傪梌偊側偐偭偨偲夞摎丅

 

 

52)Brabyn L, Skelly C. Modeling population access to New Zealand public hospitals. Int J Health Geogr 2002;1:3.

NZ偵偍偗傞38000嬫夋偺恖岥僨乕僞傪梡偄偰GIS63岞棫昦堾偺偆偪偺捈嬤傑偱偺帺摦幵偺堏摦帪娫偲嫍棧傪夝愅丅

WHO偺傾儖儅傾僞夛媍偱偼丄嬥慘丄暥壔丄婡擻揑側傾僋僙僗偺懁柺偑偁傞偲偟偰偄傞丅

丒僐僗僩僷僗夝愅乮僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅乯傪巊梡丅

ArcINFO傪巊梡丅

NZ偺杒晹偲撿晹偑傾僋僙僗偑埆偄丅

 

 

53)McColgan M, Winch R, Clark SJ et al. The changing UK paediatric consultant workdforce: report from the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health Arch Dis Child 2017;102:170-173.

丒僀僊儕僗彫帣壢妛夛偺1999擭乣2013擭偺彫帣壢堛挷嵏偲愱栧堛庢摼帪挷嵏20102013擭偺挷嵏偺夝愅丅

1999擭偺1933恖偐傜2013擭偺3718恖偵攞憹乮偙偺娫偵墷廈楯摥帪娫婯惂偑擖傞乯

丒僾儔僀儅儕偺嫵堢昦堾偱偺愱栧堛偼210恖偐傜143恖偵尭彮丅

38%偑僔僼僩嬑柋乮2001擭偵偼墷廈楯摥婯惂埲忋偺嬑柋傪76%偑偟偰偄偨乯

丒帪抁嬑柋偺堛巘偑18%偐傜22%偵忋徃丅

 

 

54)Song P, Zhu Y, Mao X et al. Asseeing spatial accessibility to maternity units in Shenzen, China. PLoS One 2013;8(7):e70227.

丒怺僙儞巗偺擠晈偺恖岥僨乕僞偲暘曍巤愝偺僨乕僞偐傜20噏寳撪偵暘曍巤愝偑偁傞偐側偄偐傪俀僗僥僢僾偺floating catchment area朄偱夝愅丅

2僗僥僢僾偱偼

--僗僥僢僾侾偱20噏寳撪偺擠晈偺恖岥偺榓偁偨傝偺暘曍巤愝偺儀僢僪悢偺榓傪寁嶼丅

--僗僥僢僾俀偱僗僥僢僾1偱媮傔偨嫙媼/廀梫偺斾棪傪抧堟偛偲偵廤寁丅

偦偟偰丄暘曍巤愝偐傜20噏寳撪偺1000恖偺擠晈偁偨傝偺昦彴悢傪寁嶼丅

僗僥僢僾侾偐傜俀傊偺夁掱偱廳暋抧堟偑弌傞丅偙偙偺擠晈1000恖偁偨傝偺昦彴悢偼奺暘曍巤愝偺昦彴悢偑壛嶼偝傟傞丅丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂

丒嫍棧偼捈慄嫍棧傪巊梡丅

20/h丄帪懍40km寳撪乮偮傑傝20噏乯傪夝愅丅

丒僜僼僩偼BaiduMap Geocoding API傪巊梡丅傑偨丄ArcGIS傪巊梡丅

丒懡偔偼偙傟傑偱偺峴惌抧嬫扨埵偱栤戣側偄偑丄僫儞僔儍儞惣晹偲儘儞僈儞搶晹偺傾僋僙僗偑埆偄丅

 

 

55)Love D, Lindquist P. The geogrraphical accessibility of hospitals to the aged: a geographic information systems analysis within Illinois. Health Serv Res 1995;29(6):629-651.

丒僀儕僲僀廈偺榁恖昦堾214偲奺僙儞僒僗僽儘僢僋10796偲偺捈慄嫍棧偺捈嬤5昦堾傪偦傟偧傟寁應丅

80%偺榁恖偑7.7km寳撪偵1偮偺榁恖昦堾偁傝丄11.6km寳撪偵2偮偑偁傞丅

丒搒巗晹偲偦傟埲奜偱偼捈嬤偺昦堾傑偱偺嫍棧偑堎側傞丅

丒峫嶡偱僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾傪20儅僀儖乮32km乯偲峫偊偰偄傞丅

丒捈慄傛傝傕僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偺嫍棧偑20偐傜25%憹偟偲偡傞Williams偺榑暥傪堷梡丅

 

 

56)Parker EB, Campbell JL. Measuring access to primary medical care: some examples of the use of geographical information systems. Health Place 1998;4(2):183-193.

ArcINFO傪梡偄偰丄僗僐僢僩儔儞僪丄惣僂僃僠傾儞抧嬫偺18GP傊偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅傑偨丄抧曽偺媬媫奜棃傊偺傾僋僙僗傕夝愅丅

丒梄曋斣崋偲堛椕婡娭埵抲傪巊梡丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偲僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偺椉幰傪巊梡丅

ER傑偱偺嫍棧偑嬤偄傎偳丄僂僅乕僋僀儞偺斾棪偑崅偄丅

丒捈嬤偺GP傊偺暯嬒捈慄嫍棧偼1.23km

GP傑偱30偐傜45暘偐偐傞偲庴恌娐嫬偑埆偄偲廧柉偑姶偠傞丅

 

 

57)Howard G, anderson R, Johnson NJ et al. Evaluation of social status as a contributing factor to the stroke belt region of the United States. Stroke 1997;28:936-940.

丒撿杒僇儘儔僀僫丄僕儑乕僕傾廈偑傾儊儕僇偱傕擼懖拞偺巰朣棪偑崅偄偙偲偑攚宨丅

丒幮夛宱嵪揑偵掅偄恖偑堦斒揑偵僴僀儕僗僋偲偄傢傟傞丅

丒撿杒僇儘儔僀僫丄僕儑乕僕傾廈偺40枩恖傪懳徾偺夝愅丅

35-54嵨偱偼懠偺廈偲斾傋偰擼懖拞偺斾棪偼2攞埲忋崅偔丄55-74嵨偱傕1.3攞崅偄丅

35-5455-74嵨慡懱偱偼丄儕僗僋偼1.3攞丅

丒偟偐偟丄幮夛宱嵪揑側場巕偼16%偟偐娭梌偟側偄丅

GIS偱偼側偄亜

 

 

58)Doi S, Inoue T, Ide H et al. Using geographic information systems to simulate patient access areas. Stud Health Technol Inform 2014;205:1120-1124.

丒撿娭搶偺500m儊僢僔儏傪梡偄偨姵幰悢偲儀僢僪晄懌偺梊應丅GIS傪棙梡丅

2025擭埲崀丄帺戭偐傜1帪娫寳撪偱昦堾傪尒偮偗傞偙偲偑擄偟偔側偡丅

丒撿娭搶偵1623昦堾丄258794彴丅

 

 

59)Vanderschuren M, McKune D. Emergency care facility access in rural areas within the golden hour?: Western Cape case study. Int J Health Geogr 2015;14:5.

丒撿傾僼儕僇偺惣働乕僾廈偱偺1帪娫埲撪偺媬媫巤愝傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

44偺媬媫巤愝偲29偺曗彆堛椕婡娭偑偁傝丄僑乕儖僨儞傾儚乕乮偙偙偱偼1帪娫偲偟偰偄傞乯傑偱偺摓払寳傪夝愅丅

ArcGIS傪巊梡丅僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅帠屘尰応偲媬媫昦堾偺埵抲丄摴楬懍搙丄憤搙惂尷偺僨乕僞傪巊梡丅

丒揷幧偱偺岎捠帠屘巰偺53%偑僑乕儖僨儞傾儚乕埲撪偵媬媫巤愝偵偨偳傝拝偗側偐偭偨丅

 

 

60)Masoodi M, Rahizadeh M. Measureing access to urban health service using geographical information system (GIS): a case study of health seivice management in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Int J health Policy Manag 2015;4(7):439-445.

丒僀儔儞偺Bandar Abbas偱偺堛椕婡娭傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

3偮偺夝愅曽朄傪巊梡

--僼儘乕僥傿儞僌丒僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄丗捈慄嫍棧偺摨怱墌偱廳暋晹暘偼愊傒憹偡丅

--嵟抁嫍棧朄丗捈慄嫍棧偺嵟抁嫍棧丒

--儗僗億儞僗僞僀儉朄丗媬媫戉偺尰応摓拝帪娫傪僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偡傞丅

丒堛椕婡娭偼奺抧堟偺恖岥偲偼娭楢側偔懚嵼偟偨丅

3曽朄偱偼儗僗億儞僗僞僀儉朄偑嵟傕嬤帡偑傛偐偭偨丅

 

 

61)Luis AA, Cabral. Geographic accessibility to primary healthcare centers in mozambique. Geographic accessibility to primary healthcare centers in Mpzambique. Int J Equity Health 2016;15(1):173.

丒儌僓儞價乕僋偺弶婜恌椕強傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

丒幵偲搆曕偱60暘寳撪偲寳奜傪斾妑丅

丒搆曕偱偼丄90.2%偺崙搚乮66.7%偺崙柉乯丄塣揮偱偼66.9%偺崙搚乮93.73%偺崙柉)60暘寳奜丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丄崅掅嵎傕峫椂丅

 

 

62)Foley R. Assessing the applicability of GIS in a  health and social care setting: planning services for informal cares in East Sussex, England. Soc Sci Med 2002;55:79-96.乮傛偔傢偐傜側偄乯

丒僀僊儕僗偺搶僒僙僢僋僗偱偺丄柍彏偺堛椕傗幮夛僒乕價僗偺擖庤壜擻惈偺昡壙偵GIS傪妶梡丅

丒偙偆偟偨柍彏偺僒乕價僗偺扴偄庤偼丄椬恖傗恊偣偒側偳偱偁傞丅

MapINFOArcView傪巊梡丅

 

 

63)Williams A, Schwartz WB, Newhouse JP et al. How many miles to the doctor? N Engl J Med 1983;309:958-963.

丒傾儊儕僇偺16廡偵偍偗傞堛椕僒乕價僗傊偺嫍棧應掕丅

70偐傜79擭偺娫丄搒巗晹埲奜偺抧堟偁傞偄偼25000恖枹枮偺挰偐傜帺摦幵偱10儅僀儖埲撪偵恖岥偺80%25儅僀儖埲撪偵98%偑壗傜偐偺堛巘偵傾僋僙僗偱偒傞丅

80擭戙偵偼偙偆偟偨揷幧偺堛椕傊偺傾僋僙僗偼夵慞丅

丒偟偐偟丄抧棟揑偵屒棫偟偨抧堟偱偺夵慞偼彮側偄丅

丒嫍棧應掕偼丄堒搙宱搙偐傜寁嶼丅33暯曽儅僀儖偺僌儕僢僪偺拞怱傪巊梡丅

 

 

 

64)Kohli S, Sahlen K, Sivertun A et al. Distance from the primary Health center: a GHIS method to study geographical access to health care. J Med Syst 1995;19(6): 425-436.

丒僗僂僃乕僨儞偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

MapINFO傪梡偄偨捈慄夝愅丅

丒抧嬫偺僙儞僩儘僀僪偲僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛偲偺捈慄嫍棧傪應掕丅

44%偼僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛偐傜1噏丄80%5噏丄89%10噏寳撪偵嫃廧丅

 

 

65)Luo W. Using a GIS-based floating catchment method to assess areas with shrtage of physicians. Health Place 2004;10:1-11.

丒僆儗僑儞廈傪梡偄偨彫抧嬫偲堛巘偲偺嫍棧夝愅丅偦傟傑偱偼丄峴惌扨埵偱堛巘懳恖岥斾傪夝愅偟偰偄偨偑丄幚懺偵崌傢側偐偭偨丅

丒彫抧堟偺僙儞僩儘僀僪偐傜偁傞嫍棧偱墌傪彂偒丄偦偺拞偱偺恖岥堛巘斾棪傪夝愅偟偰丄堛巘晄懌偺桳柍傪夝愅丅

20儅僀儖乮帺摦幵偱30暘乯偱墌傪昤偔偲丄堛巘晄懌偺抧堟偑弌偰偔傞丅

 

 

66)Ong MEH, Tan EH, Yan X et al. An observational study describing the geographic-time distribution of cardiac arrests in Singapole: what is the utility of geographic information systems for plannning public access defibrillation? Resuscitation 2008;76(3):388-396.

丒僔儞僈億乕儖偺怱掆巭偺帪娫懷偲応強偺GIS傪梡偄偨夝愅乮応強偺恾帵丗ArcGIS巊梡乯

丒応強偼梄曋斣崋傪巊梡丅

2001101擔亖20041014擔偺2428恖丅暯嬒擭楊60.6嵨丅

67.8%偺怱掆巭偑帺戭偱敪惗丅

 

 

67)Bradyn L, Beere P. Population access to hospital emergency departments and the impacts of health reform in New Zealand. Health Informatics J 2006;12(3):227-237.

NZ偱偺媬媫奜棃傊偺堏摦帪娫傪僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅乮ArcINFO巊梡乯偵傛傝嶼弌丅

丒摨帪偵丄60暘埲忋偺恖岥傪寁嶼丅

丒堛椕婡娭傊偺怴帺桼庡媊偺摫擖偱夁慳抧偱堛椕傾僋僙僗偑埆壔偲寢榑丅

 

 

68)Roovali L, Kiivet RA. Geographical variations in hospital use in Estonia. Health Place 2006;12:195-202.

丒僄僗僩僯傾偱偺巗挰懞扨埵偱偺昦堾傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

丒巗挰懞偺僙儞僩儘僀僪偲捈嬤偺昦堾偲偺堏摦帪娫傪僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱嶼弌丅

丒昦堾傑偱偺堏摦帪娫偑挿偄傎偳丄擖堾棪傗嵞擖堾棪偼掅偐偭偨丅偟偐偟丄嵼堾擔悢偵娭偟偰偼偼偭偒傝偟偨寢壥偑弌側偐偭偨丅

 

 

69)Talen E. Neighbourhoods as service providors: a methodology for evaluating pedestrian access. Environ Plann B Plann Des 2003;30(3):181-200.乮憤愢乯

丒岞墍側偳偺岞嫟巤愝偑嬤椬偵偁傞偐偳偆偐傪寁應偡傞嵺偺GIS偵娭偡傞憤愢丅

丒椺帵偱偼丄捈慄嫍棧偱嵟抁嫍棧傪寁應丅

丒寁應朄偲偟偰偼

乕乕Container丗峴惌嬫堟撪偺巤愝悢丅

乕乕Coverage丗偁傞嫍棧寳撪偺巤愝悢丅

乕乕嵟抁嫍棧丗偁傞抧揰偐傜嵟抁偺巤愝傑偱偺嫍棧丅

乕乕Travel cost:偁傞抧揰偐傜憤偰偺巤愝傑偱偺暯嬒嫍棧丅

乕乕廳傒晅偗傪偟偨巤愝悢傪嫍棧偺杸嶤岠壥乮嶁摴側偳丠乯偱妱偭偨傕偺

偑偁傞丅

 

 

70)Martin D, Williams HCWL. Market-area analysis and accessibility to primary health-care centers. Environt and Plannning A 1992;24(7):1009-1019.NotInt

丒僀僊儕僗偺僽儕僗僩儖巗傪儌僨儖偲偟偨GP偲搊榐廧柉偲偺嬻娫夝愅丅

丒姵幰僇儖僥偐傜梄曋斣崋傪拪弌偟丄GP偲搊榐廧柉偲偺嫍棧傪應掕偟偰娭學傪悢幃偱儌僨儖壔丅

 

 

71)Kadobera D,Sartorius B, Masanja H,et al. The effect of distance to formal health facility on childhood mortality in rural Tanzania, 2005-2007. Glob Health Action. 2012 Nov 9;5:1-9. doi: 10.3402/gha.v5i0.19099.

丒僞儞僓僯傾偱偺28823恖偺僐儂乕僩偱偺夝愅丅

丒堛椕婡娭偲嫃廧抧偺僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧偲捈慄嫍棧傪寁應偟丄5嵨枹枮偺巰朣棪傪嫍棧偛偲偵夝愅乮2005擭偐傜2007擭乯

ArcView傪巊梡丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧偑5km傪挻偊傞偲丄巰朣棪偺僆僢僤偼17%忋徃丅

 

 

72)Apparicio P, Abdelmajid M, Riva M, et al. Comparing alternative approaches to measuring the geographical accessibility of urban health seivices: distance types and aggregation-error issues. Int J Health Geogr 2008;7:7.乮廳梫乯

丒搒巗晹偱偺捈慄嫍棧丄儅儞僴僢僞儞嫍棧乮廲偲墶偺堏摦嫍棧偺榓丗幬曈傪彍偔捈妏嶰妏宍偺2曈偺榓偱僽儘僢僋偑岄斦偺栚偺帪偺堏摦嫍棧偺憡摉乯偲僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺憡娭偺夝愅丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偲僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧偲偺憡娭學悢偼0.95偱偁傞偑丄嵶偐偄偽傜偮偒偼懚嵼偟偨丅摿偵丄搒巗廃曈晹偱岆嵎偑戝偒偐偭偨丅

丒崙惃挷嵏偱偺彫抧堟偱偺岆嵎偼10%掱搙丅

 

 

73)Mizen, Fry R, Grinnell D et al. Quantifying the error associated with alternative GIS-based techniques to measure access to health care services. AIMS Public Health 2015;2(4):746-761.

丒僀僊儕僗偺Swansea抧嬫偺GP傊偺壠掚偐傜偺傾僋僙僗偵偮偄偰丄寁應曽朄娫偱偺岆嵎傪巜揈丅

ArcGIS傪巊梡丅

丒嫃廧抧偺恖岥廳怱傪僙儞僩儘僀僪偵偡傞偺偐丄嫍棧寁嶼偵傛傞偺傕偐偱堎側傞丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偼捈慄嫍棧傛傝傕惛搙偑崅偄丅憡娭學悢偼丄彫抧堟偱偼0.99丄導扨埵偱偼0.19

丒捈慄嫍棧偲僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧偺嵎偼丄搒巗晹偱戝偒偔丄揷幧偱彫偝偄丒

丒傾僋僙僗夝愅偵偼丄僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偐捈慄嫍棧夝愅偑嵟傕梡偄傜傟傞丅

 

 

74)Vujicic M, Yarbrough C. Estimation premium and out-of-pocket outlays under all child dental coverage options in the federally facilitated marketplace. J Pediatr 2017;182:349-355.

丒傾儊儕僇偱帟壢恌椕傪娷傓曐尟偲偦偆偱側偄曐尟偲帟壢愱梡曐尟偺壛擖幰偱偺帟壢恌椕偵偍偗傞巟弌偺嵎堎偺夝愅丅

12庬椶偺姵幰僾儘僼傽僀儖傪巊梡丠丠

丒帟壢恌椕傪娷傓曐尟壛擖幰偱偼丄帟壢恌椕偵偍偗傞曐尟椏偲巟弌偼偦偆偱側偄曐尟偲帟壢愱梡曐尟偺壛擖幰傛傝傕彮側偐偭偨丅

 

 

75)Kara F, Egrest IO. Accessibility of health care institutions: a case study by using GIS. Int J Sci LKnowl 2013;3(4):16-27.

丒僩儖僐偺僀僗僞儞僽乕儖偺偁傞抧嬫傪梡偄偨傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

ArcMap偲僌乕僌儖傾乕僗傪巊梡丅1僉儘乮搆曕15暘乯偲3僉儘乮帺摦幵15暘乯偺僶僢僼傽乕傪彂偒丄奺抧嬫偺拞怱抧偲捈嬤偺堛椕婡娭偲偺嫍棧傪僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱寁嶼丅

丒傎偲傫偳偺廧柉偑30暘埲撪偵堛椕婡娭偵傾僋僙僗壜擻丅

 

 

76)Munoz UH, Kallestal. geographical accessibility and spatial coverage medeling of the primary health care network in the Western Province of Rwanda. Int J Health geogr 2012;11:40.

丒儖儚儞僟偺Western導偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾巤愝傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

ArcGIS偵傛傞僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

丒搆曕丄搆曕偲帺揮幵丄搆曕偲岞嫟岎捠婡娭偱偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅偡傞偲丄60暘埲撪偺傾僋僙僗偺恖岥斾棪偼丄搆曕偱偼26.6%丄帺揮幵棙梡偱偼58%丄岞嫟岎捠婡娭棙梡偱偼34.3%偱偁偭偨丅

 

 

77)Talen E, Anselin L. Assessment spatial equity: an evaluation of measures of accessibility to public playgrounds. Environ Plan A 1998;30:595-613.

丒僆僋儔儂儅廈Tulsa巗偵偍偗傞岞墍偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

丒曽朄偼丄廳椡儌僨儖丄暯嬒堏摦嫍棧丄嵟抁嫍棧傪巊梡丅

丒僜僼僩偼丄ArcViewSpaceStat

丒嫍棧偼僱僢僩儚乕僋丠乮婰嵹偑偼偭偒傝偟側偄偑丄奺抧嬫偺僙儞僩儘僀僪娫偱偺嫍棧傪弌偟偰偄傞乯丅

 

 

78)Delmelle EM, Cassell CH, Dony C et al. Modelling travel impedance to medical care for children with birth defects using geographic information systems. Birth Defects Research (part A) 2013;97:673-684.

丒僼儘儕僟偵偍偗傞擇暘愐捙偺偙偳傕偺堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

丒曣恊偺弌嶻帪偺尰廧強傪儅僢僺儞僌丅

丒弶傔偺1擭娫偺擖堾愭偲偺嫍棧應掕丅

丒嵟懍宱楬傪梡偄偨丅帺摦幵偱偺堏摦丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

MapMakerInstantGeocoder, ArcGIS傪巊梡丅

丒揷幧偺巕偳傕偼丄搒夛偺巕嫙偵斾傋偰2攞偺堏摦帪娫乮暯嬒抣偱68.3暘偲38.3暘乯偑偐偐傞丅

 

 

79)Martin D, Wrigley H, Barnett A, et al. Increasing the sophistication of access measurement in anrural healthcare study. Health Place 2002;8(1):3-13.

丒僀僊儕僗偺撿惣晹偺摓払寳夝愅乮帺摦幵25/km丄搆曕3km/h

丒巹梡偲岞嫟岎捠婡娭偱偺堏摦嫍棧偱摓払寳丅僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偺傛偆偩偑丅

乮曽朄榑偺夝愅乯

 

 

80)Gjesfjeld CD. How far?: using geographical information systems (GIS) to eamine maternity care access for expectant mothers in a rural state. Soc Work Health Care 2011;50(9):682-693.

丒僲乕僗僟僐僞廈偱偺揷幧偺孲偱偺嶻壢働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

丒擠晈偺嫃廧孲偲弌嶻偟偨堛椕巤愝偺偁傞孲偲偺嫍棧應掕丅

ArcGIS傪梡偄偰丄嫃廧偡傞孲偺僙儞僩儘僀僪偲堛椕婡娭偲偺捈慄嫍棧傪應掕丅

18%偼嫃廧抧偲弌嶻巤愝偲偑40儅僀儖乮64僉儘掱搙乯傛傝傕挿偄丅

 

 

81)嫟棫孿帯丅暋悢偺嵟抁嫍棧専嶕傪栚揑偲偟偨宱楬専嶕僔僗僥儉偺採埬丅堦斒幮抍朄恖丄抧棟忣曬僔僗僥儉妛夛丄2007擭搙戞16夞島墘榑暥廤

https://www.gisa-japan.org/conferences/proceedings/2007/papers/8/8-3.pdf#search=%27%E5%85%B1%E7%AB%8B%E5%9C%AD%E6%B2%BB+%E8%A4%87%E6%95%B0%E3%81%AE%E6%9C%80%E7%9F%AD%E8%B7%9D%E9%9B%A2%27

丒摓払寳夝愅偺奣愢丅

丒嵟抁嫍棧夝愅傪暋悢偵偟偰丄摓払寳夝愅偲偟偰偄傞偙偲傪愢柧丅

 

 

82)Fone DL, Christie S, Lester N. Comparison of perceived and modelled geographical access to accident and emergency departments: a cross-sectional analysis from the Caephilly Health and Social Needs Study. Int J Health Geogr 2006;5:16.

丒僀僊儕僗偺僂僃乕儖僘偱偺媬媫奜棃傊偺傾僋僙僗偺挷嵏丅

丒傾儞働乕僩偺11853恖傪懳徾丅

MapINFO偺僪儔僀僽僞僀儉傪巊梡丅昞偵懍搙偺婰嵹偁傝丅

丒姵幰偺傾僋僙僗偺椙偟偁偟偺姶妎偲幚嵺偺嫍棧寁應偲偺憡娭傪夝愅丅

丒慡懱偺摓払帪娫偺拞墰抣偼12.3暘丅

丒傾僋僙僗偑埆偄偲姶偠偨恖偺塣揮帪娫偺拞墰抣偼丄傛偄偲姶偠偨恖偺拞墰抣傛傝挿偐偭偨丅

丒傾僋僙僗偺椙偟偁偟偲GIS偱偺嫍棧偺憡娭偼崅偔丄摿偵壠懓慡堳偑幵傪帩偮壠掚偱偼偦偺抣偑崅偐偭偨丅

丒捈慄嫍棧傪傾僋僙僗偺巜昗偲偟偰巊梡偱偒傞丅

 

 

83)Apparicio P, Cloutier MS, Shearmur R. The case of Monteal's missing food deserts: evaluation of accessibility to food supermarkets. Int J Health Geogr 2007;6:4.

丒儌儞僩儕僆乕儖偺怘昳揦傊偺傾僋僙僗偑埆偄抧堟偺夝愅丅

丒崙惃挷嵏偺彫抧堟偲怘椏昳揦偲偺僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧乮ArcGIS)傪巊梡丅

丒傾僋僙僗偺埆偄抧堟偺捈嬤偺僗乕僷乕傊偺嫍棧偺暯嬒偼816儊乕僩儖丅

 

 

84)Christie S, Fone D. Equity of access to tertiary hospitals in Wales: a travel time analysis. J Public Health Med 2003;25(4):344-350.亂廳梫亃

丒僀僊儕僗偺僂僃乕儖僘偵偍偗傞奺彫抧堟偺3師昦堾傊偺堏摦帪娫偺夝愅乮僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅乯

 

MapINFO偱僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

 

85)搚堜弐桽丄堜忋悞丄堜弌攷惗傎偐丅姵幰庴椕寳儌僨儖偵傛傞堛椕廀梫挻夁抧堟偺儅僢僺儞僌丄抧堟堛椕惌嶔偺偨傔偺姵幰悢偺彨棃悇寁偲廀媼昡壙丅堛椕忣曬妛丂2013;33(6):301-310.

丒愮梩導傪500儊乕僩儖儊僢僔儏偱嬫愗傝丄奺儊僢僔儏偺彨棃恖岥傪悇掕偟丄昁梫昦彴悢傪悇寁丅

丒庴椕寳偺帪娫夝愅偼丄傾僪僶儞僗僩丒僐傾丒僥僋僲儘僕乕偺ACT嫍棧寁嶼僔僗僥儉偱僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

 

 

86)Martin D, Roderick P, Diamond I, et al. Geographical aspects of the uptake of renal replacement therapy in England. Int J Population Geogr 1998;4(3):227-242.丒僀儞僌儔儞僪偺恡堏怉丄恡摟愅傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

Autoruote偲偄偆僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅僜僼僩巊梡丅

5800僇儖僥偲53恡僙儞僞乕偲偺嫍棧偲帪娫傪僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

丒嫍棧傗堏摦帪娫偑挿偔側傞偲丄恡摟愅丄暊枌摟愅丄恡堏怉偺斾棪掅壓丅

 

 

87)Ray N, Ebener S. AccessMid 3.0: computing geographic coverage and accessibility to health care services using anisotropic movement of ptatients. Int J Health Geogr 2008; 7: 63.

ArcView偺僄僋僗僥儞僔儑儞偱偁傞AceesMod偺徯夘丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偑夝愅偱偒傞丅

 

 

88)Pearce J, Witten K, Bartie P. Neighbourhoods and health: a GIS approach to measuring community resource accessibility. J Epidemiol Community Health 2006; 60: 389-395.

ArcMapArcINFO傪梡偄偰丄NZ偺彫抧堟偺寬峃娭楢巤愝乮儗僋巤愝丄怘昳揦側偳偺彫攧傝巤愝丄嫵堢巤愝丄堛椕婡娭丄儅僆儕偺惞抧乯傊偺僱僢僩儚乕僋傪梡偄偨傾僋僙僗夝愅丅丒帺摦幵偱偺堏摦傪擮摢丅

丒怘昳揦傊偺傾僋僙僗偱偼丄1暘埲撪偐傜244暘傑偱偽傜偮偒偁傝丅

丒堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偺拞墰抣偼丄2.05暘丅

 

 

89)Wang F, Luo W. Assessing spatial and nonspatial factors for healthcare access: towards an integrated approach to defining health professional shortage areas. Health Place 2005;11:131-146.

丒僀儕僲僀廈偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛傊偺傾僋僙僗傪抧棟揑丄幮夛宱嵪妛揑偵夝愅丅

丒抧棟揑偵偼彫抧堟偲僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛偲偺帪娫乮僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧偱30暘寳乯偵娭偟偰2僗僥僢僾丒僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄偱夝愅丅

 

 

90)Allard SW, Tolman RM, Rosen D. Proximity to service providers and service utilization among welfare recipients: the interaction of place and race. J Pollicy Analysis and Management 2003;22(4):599-613.

丒僨僩儘僀僩嬤峹偺3孲偵偍偗傞惛恄幘姵偍傛傃栻暔棎梡偵娭偡傞暉巸僒乕價僗偺棙梡偲嫍棧偲偺娭學傪夝愅丅

丒巤愝偐傜敿宎1.5側偄偟3儅僀儖寳撪偺恖岥夝愅丅

丒嫍棧嬤偄曽偑棙梡棪崅偄丄傑偨丄崟恖偺棙梡棪偼掅偄丅

 

 

91)Luo W, Wang F. Measures of spatial accessibility to health care in a GIS environment: synthesis and a case study in the Chicago region. Environm and Plannning B: Plannning and Design 2003;30(6):865-884.亂廳梫亃

2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄偲廳椡儌僨儖偱偺丄僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛傊偺傾僋僙僗傪僔僇僑偱夝愅丅

丒挊幰偼丄廳椡儌僨儖傛傝傕2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄傪悇彠丅

丒僙儞僒僗偱恖岥丄僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛偺僨乕僞傪巊梡丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偱偼側偔丄僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱堏摦帪娫偱夝愅丅

丒摓払寳偼20暘偐傜50暘偱夝愅丅

 

 

92)Witten K, Exeter D, Field A. The quality of urban environment: mapping variation in access to community resources. Urban Studies 2003;40(1):161-177.

GIS傪梡偄偰屸妝巤愝丄岞嫟岎捠捠怣巤愝丅攦偄暔巤愝傗嬧峴丄嫵堢巤愝丄堛椕巤愝丄幮夛暥壔巤愝傊偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅僯儏乕僕乕儔儞僪丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

 

 

93)Ziliaskopoulos AK, Mahmassani HS. A note on least time path computation considering delays and prohibitions for intersection movements. Transportation ResearchB 1996;30(5):359-367.亂傛偔傢偐傜偢亃

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偵偍偄偰丄嵟抁宱楬朄偱偼岎嵎揰偱偺揮夞偺帪娫夝愅偵擄偑偱傞丅

 

 

94)Haynes R, Lovett A, Sunnenberg G. Potential accessibility, travel time, and consumer choice: geographical in general registrations in Eastern England. Environment and Plannning A 2003;35:1733-1750.

丒僀僊儕僗搶僀儞僌儔儞僪偺働儞僽儕僢僕僔儍乕丄僲乕僼僅乕僋丄僒僼僅乕僋偱偺廧柉200枩恖偵娭偡傞嫃廧抧偲堦斒堛偺搊榐愭偲偺専摙丅

丒幵偱偺堏摦帪娫偲搊榐堦斒堛偲偺娭楢偱偼丄56亾偑捈嬤偺堦斒堛偵搊榐丅

丒捈嬤偺堦斒堛傊偺搊榐偺斾棪偼搒巗晹偱掅偔丄抧曽偱崅偄丅

丒幵偱偺堏摦帪娫偑1暘怢傃傞偲偦偺堦斒堛傊偺搊榐棪偼29%壓偑傞丅

481恖偺GP373彫抧堟乮100儊乕僩儖儊僢僔儏偵嬫愗傞乯

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱堏摦帪娫丄捈慄嫍棧傕寁應丅

ArcINFO巊梡丅

 

 

95)Hewko J, Smoyer-Tomic KE, Hodgson MJ. Measuring neibourhood spatial accessibility to urban amenities: does aggregation error matter? Environmenta and Plannning A 2002;34:1185-1206.

丒彫抧堟側偳傪戙昞揰偱昞偡偙偲偵傛傞嫍棧側偳偺寁應岆嵎偵娭偡傞媍榑丅

丒椺帵偲偟偰丄僇僫僟偺僄僪儌儞僩儞偺岞墍丄岞嫟儂乕儖丄屸妝巤愝傊偺傾僋僙僗傪巊梡丅

丒僙儞僩儘僀僪偺嵟抁嫍棧丄恖岥偱廳傒偯偗偟偨僙儞僩儘僀僪偺嫍棧丄梄曋斣崋嬫堟乮嵟彫扨埵偱恖岥埵抲偺戙昞壔偑側偄偲壖掕乯偱偺恖岥偱偺廳傒偯偗偱偺嫍棧偺3捠傝偱夝愅乮偡傋偰捈慄嫍棧乯

 

 

96)Phibbs CS, Luft HS. Correlation of travel time on roads versus straight line distance. Med Care Res Rev 1995;52(4):532-542.

NY廈偺戝偒側岎嵎揰乮ZIP偺抧堟偵嬤偄崅懍偺岎嵎揰偲160昦堾偲偺乯捈慄嫍棧偲幚嵺偺堏摦帪娫偲偺憡娭傪夝愅丅

丒憡娭學悢偼0.987偱丄15暘枹枮偵尷掕偡傞偲0.826

 

 

97)Fortner , Rost K, Zhang M, et al. The impsct of geographic accessibility on the intensity and quality of depression treatment. Med Care 1999;37:884-893.

丒傾乕僇儞僜乕廈偺106恖偺烼姵幰偺帯椕楌偺儗價儏乕丅

丒堛椕巤愝傊偺嫍棧偑挿偄偲庴恌夞悢偑尭彮偡傞乮懡曄検夝愅乯

丒堏摦帪娫偼丄ArcView偱僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

 

 

98)O'Reilly D, Stevensen M, McCay C, et al. General practice out-of-hours service, variations in use and eqality in access to a doctor: a cross-sectional study. Br J Gen Pract 2001;51:625-629.

丒杒傾僀儖儔儞僪偱偺4偐強偺帪娫奜僙儞僞乕傊偺揹榖憡択幰110357恖偺夝愅丅

丒偙傟傜偺巤愝傊偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺嫍棧偲帪娫偲憡択偲偺夝愅丅

丒憡択偼丄巤愝偵嬤偄偙偲丄堛椕夁慳抧堟偩偲夞悢偑憹偊丄昦忬偲偼娭楢偑側偄丅

丒巤愝傊偺嫍棧偑1僉儘棧傟傞偲GP庴恌夞悢偼0.978攞偲側傞丅

 

 

99)Boscoe FP, Henry KA, Zdeb MS. A nationwide comparison of driving distance versus straigh-line distance to hospitals. Prof Geogr 2012;64(2):doi:10.1080/00330124.2011.583586.亂廳梫亃

丒傾儊儕僇偺彫抧堟66011抧嬫偲昦堾5111偺偆偪捈嬤偺傕偺偲偺捈慄嫍棧偲塣揮嫍棧偲偺憡娭丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偼媴柺嶰妏朄偱寁應偟偰捈嬤偺傕偺傪摨掕丅

丒塣揮嫍棧偼僌乕僌儖儅僢僾偵SAS FILENAMEURL methods傪棙梡丅

丒嫍棧偺憡娭偺擇忔偼0.9傪忋夞傞丅捈慄偺栺1.4攞偑塣揮嫍棧丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偼塣揮嫍棧傪戙梡偱偒傞偑丄塣揮嫍棧偼庤寉偵偱偒傞傛偆偵側偭偰偒偨偺偱偙偪傜偑椙偄丅

 

 

100)Bamford EJ, Dunne L, Taylor DS, et al. Accessibility to general practitioners in rural South Australia. Med J Australia 1999;171:614-616.

丒僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偺恖偑廧傓墦妘抧1170抧嬫偲109恖偺GP偲偺摴楬嫍棧傪夝愅丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺摴楬嫍棧丅

GP偲偺嫍棧偼0偐傜677僉儘偱丄暯嬒偼58僉儘丅

513抧嬫乮43%乯偼GP偐傜20僉儘埲撪偱偁傝丄173抧嬫乮15%乯偼80僉儘傪挻偊偨丅

 

101)Haynes R, Bentham G, Lovett A, et al. Effects of distance to hospital ans GP surgery on hospital inpatient episode, controlling for needs and provision. Soc Sci Med 1999;49:425-433.

丒僀僊儕僗偺働儞僽儕僢僕僔儍乕丄僲乕僼僅乕僋丄僒僼僅僅乕僋偺555抧堟偺捈嬤傊偺昦堾偲GP傊偺嫍棧偲擖堾棪偺夝愅丅

丒擖堾夞悢偼470659夞丅

丒嫍棧偼捈慄嫍棧傪巊梡丅

丒昦堾傊偺嫍棧偑挿偔側傞偲擖堾棪偼掅壓丄摨條偵GP傊偺嫍棧偑挿偔側傞偲擖堾棪偼掅壓丅

 

 

102)De Luca G,Petrelli A,Landriscina T, et al. Geographic and socioeconomic differences in access to revascularization following acute myocardial infarction. Eur J Public Health 2016;26(5):760-765.

丒僀僞儕傾偺僺僄儌儞僥乮廧柉440枩恖乯偵偍偗傞CCU傑偱偺塣揮帪娫偲PTCA偺幚巤棪偺斾妑丅

丒塣揮帪娫偼僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

66097恖偺怱嬝峓嵡帠椺丅19466恖偑PTCA

20暘枹枮偵斾傋偰丄PTCA偺幚巤棪偑20偐傜40暘偱偼0.84攞丄40暘埲忋偱偼0.78攞偵側傞丅

 

 

103)Randcliff E, Delmelle E, Kirby RS, et alFactors associated with travel time and distance to access hospital care among infants with spina bifida. Matern Child Health J 2016;20:205-217.

丒僼儘儕僟偱偺612恖乮199811擔偐傜20071231擔乯偺擇暘愐捙偺偙偳傕偺昦堾傊偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

ArcGIS偱僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

丒昦堾傊偺堏摦帪娫偼暯嬒45.1暘丄拞墰抣25.9暘丅

丒堏摦帪娫偑30暘埲壓偺巕嫙偵斾傋偰丄偦傟傪挻偊傞揷幧偺偙偳傕偼傾僋僙僗夞悢偑彮側偄丅

 

 

104)Fishman J, McLafferty S, Galanter W. Does spatial access to primary care affect emergency department utilization for nonemergent conditions? Health Serv Res 2016, doi:10.1111/1475-6773.12617.(傛偔傢偐傜偢丄KDE偑晄柧乯

丒僔僇僑偺2007擭偐傜2011擭偺媬媫奜棃偺棙梡偲姵幰廧強偐傜昦堾傑偱偺嫍棧偲娭學傪夝愅丅

ArcGIS傪巊梡丅

丒昦堾偲廧嫃偺ZIP僐乕僪傪巊梡丅

2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄傗KDE(?)側偳偺捈慄嫍棧傪棙梡丅

丒堛椕婡娭偑彮側偄抧嬫偲僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗偑埆偄抧嬫偱嬞媫惈偺掅偄媬媫奜棃偺棙梡偑懡偐偭偨丅

 

 

105)Luo W, Qi Y. An enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method for measuring spatial accessibility to primary care physicians. Health Place 2009;15:1100-1107.

2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄丄廳椡儌僨儖偱僀儕僲僀廈杒晹偺僾儕儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

丒偝傜偵丄2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄偵堏摦帪娫偵廳傒偯偗(enhanced)

丒懳徾恖岥偼123枩恖丅栺1僉儘偺僌儕僢僪偱嬫暘偗丅

丒嫍棧傗堏摦帪娫偼ArcGIS偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

丒夝愅斖埻偼30暘寳撪偱10暘埲壓丄10偐傜20暘丄20偐傜30暘偱廳傒偯偗傪曄偊偰偄傞丅

 

 

106)Panciera R, Khan A, Rizvi SJR, et al. The influrence of travel time on emergency obstetric care seeking behavior in the urban poor of Bangladesh: a GIS study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016;16:240. doi 10.1186/s12884-016-1032-7.

丒僶儞僌儔僨僔儏偺僔儕僢僩巗偺昻崲幰偺嶻壢媬媫偺棙梡偲巤愝傑偱偺嫍棧偺夝愅丅

ArcGIS偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅傪巊梡丅庤抜偼彂偄偰偄側偄偑懢偄摴楬偱帪懍11.5僉儘丄嵶偄摴楬偱帪懍5僉儘偲側偭偰偄傞丅

丒昻崲幰偱偼丄捈嬤偺堛椕婡娭偺堏摦帪娫偑5暘墑傃傞偲棙梡棪偼30%掅壓偡傞丅

 

 

107)Stentzel U, Piegsa J, Freidrich D, et al. Accessibility of general practitioners and selected specialist physicians by car and by public transport in a rural region of Germany. BMC Health Serv Res 2016, doi 10.1186/s12913-016-1839-y.

丒僪僀僣偺抧曽偺僼僅儖億儊儖儞-僌儔僀僗儚儖僪抧堟偺榁恖偺堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗傪僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱帺壠梡幵偲岞嫟岎捠婡娭偱斾妑丅

丒帺壠梡幵偱偼丄GP0.1偐傜22.9暘丄愱栧堛偵偼0.4偐傜42.9暘丅偟偐偟丄岞嫟岎捠婡娭偱偼丄暯嬒偱GP99.3暘丄撪壢堛偵143.0暘丄娽壢堛偵129.3暘丄斿擜婍壢堛偵159.9暘偐偐傞丅

丒岞嫟岎捠婡娭偼帺壠梡幵偺戙懼偵側傜側偄丅

 

 

108)Shaikh MA, Shabbar M. Spatial distribution and accessibility to public sector tertiary care teaching hospitals in Karachi: a geographic information systems application. J Pak Med Assoc 2016;66(7):889-892.

丒僇儔僠偱偺岞棫3師堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

ArcMApArcGIS傪巊梡偟丄僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偲捈慄僶僢僼傽乕偱偺夝愅丅

丒僶僢僼傽乕偱傕摓払寳偱傕俁丆俇丄俋僉儘偺寳堟傪嶌傞偲丄僇儔僠偺挰偺戝敿偼僇僶乕偝傟偰偄傞偙偲偑傢偐傞丅側偍丄嫃廧恖岥傊偺尵媦偼側偄丅

 

 

109)Donohoe J, Marshall V, Tan X, et al. Spatial access to primary care providers in Appalachia: evaluating current methodology. J Prim Care Community Health 2016;7(3):149-158.

丒傾儊儕僇偺傾僷儔僠傾嶳柆廃曈偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄傪巊梡丅堏摦帪娫偼僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

ArcMapArcGIS傪巊梡丅摓払寳偼60暘傑偱偲偟偨丅

丒搒巗晹偼抧曽傛傝傕堏摦帪娫偑彮側偄丅

丒傎偲傫偳偼10暘埲撪偺塣揮偱僾儔僀儅儕働傾偵払偡傞偙偲偑偱偒傞丅

 

 

110)Chong S, Byun R, Jalaludin BB. A feasibility study using geographic access to general practices and routinely collected data in public health and health sresearch. Public health Res Pract 2015;25(4):e2541542.

丒僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偺撿惣僔僪僯乕抧嬫偵偍偗傞擠晈偺廃嶻婜堦斒恌椕偲弌惗慜僒乕價僗傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

63074弌嶻傪懳徾丅

1km2km偺惓墌偲僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧偱偺僶僢僼傽乕傪彂偄偰丄傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

ArcGIS傪巊梡偟偰丄僱僢僩儚乕僋僶僢僼傽乕偲惓墌偲側傞捈慄僶僢僼傽乕傪昤夋丅

丒捈嬤偺5偮偺廃嶻婜堦斒恌椕巤愝傊摓払偱偒傞嫍棧偼丄2.3km3.0km偱拞墰抣偼1.4km

 

111)Roderick P, Clements S, Stone N, et al. Whatdetermines geographical variation in rates of acceptance onto renal replacement therapy in England? J Health Serv Res Policy 1999;4(3):139-146.

丒塸崙偱偺恡晄慡姵幰偺恡堏怉傗摟愅偵懳偡傞傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

丒嫃廧抧偼100儊乕僩儖僌儕僢僪丅恖岥偱廳傒捤偟偨僙儞僩儘僀僪傪巊梡丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偲僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺夝愅丅

丒擭楊傗惈暿丄幮夛宱嵪忬嫷丄恖庬摍偱傕堎側傞偑丄捈嬤偺摟愅婡娭摍傊偺嫍棧傕塭嬁傪梌偊丄摿偵摴楬偵傛傞堏摦帪娫偑塭嬁偡傞丅

 

 

112)McGrail MR, Humphreys JS. Spatial access disparities to primary health care in rural and remote Australia. Geospatial Health 2015;10(2):358.

亂傾僋僙僗巜悢偺掕媊偑晄柧亃

丒僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偺傊偒抧偵偍偗傞僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄傪巊梡丅

丒摓払帪娫偼丄ArcView偱僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

丒僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾偼丄304570120200暘偺寳堟丅

丒恖岥偱廳傒偯偗偟偨僙儞僩儘僀僪傪巊梡丅

丒傊偒抧娫偱僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗偵偽傜偮偒偁傝丅

 

 

113)Tansley G, Schuurman N, Amram O, et al. Spatial access to emergency services in low-and middle-income countries: a GIS-based analysis. PLoS One 2015, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0141113.

丒僴僀僠偲僫儈價傾偺媬媫堛椕傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

GIS偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅ArcMap傪巊梡丅

丒俆丆侾侽丆俆侽僉儘偺摓払寳偱偺夝愅丅

丒摓払寳偺廃傝偺1僉儘偺僶僢僼傽乕傕嶌惉乮丠乯

100暯曽儊乕僩儖偛偲偺僌儕僢僪夝愅丅

丒堛椕婡娭傪儗儀儖A:1斢夁偛偣傞儀僢僪偁傝24帪娫懳墳丄揹婥偲悈偑擖庤壜擻丅儗儀儖BA偺傎偐偵揰揌丄寣塼丄婎杮揑側奜壢庤媄偑壜擻丄儗儀儖C3師堛椕婡娭偱儗儀儖B傪偡傋偰枮偨偟50彴埲忋偺儀僢僪偁傝丅

丒僴僀僠偱偼25%丄僫儈價傾偱偼51%偺廧柉偑50僉儘埲忋偺堏摦偱傕24帪娫懱惂偺儗儀儖A側偳偺掅師堛椕傪庴偗傞偙偲偑偱偒側偄丅

丒僴僀僠偱偼51%丄僫儈價傾偱偼72%50僉儘寳撪偱崅師堛椕傪庴偗傞偙偲偑偱偒側偄丅

丒峫嶡偱丄僇僫僟偱偼78%丄傾儊儕僇偱偼84亾偑1帪娫埲撪偵3師堛椕婡娭偵摓払偱偒傞偲弎傋偰偄傞丅

 

 

114)Jin C, Cheng J, Huang Z, et al. Spatial inequity in access to healthcare facilities at a county levelin a developing country: a case study of Deqing County, Zhejiang, China. Int J Equity Health 2015;14:67.

丒拞崙煷峕徣摽惔導(恖岥49.2枩恖乯偵偍偗傞堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

丒崅懍摴楬偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅乮ArcGIS巊梡乯偱丄僋儔僗侾偼帪懍80僉儘丄僋儔僗260僉儘丄僋儔僗340僉儘丄僋儔僗4偼俁侽僉儘偲愝掕丅

丒導儗儀儖偺昦堾傊偺傾僋僙僗偼丄15暘寳偱廧柉偺50.03%30暘寳偱95.77%60暘寳偱100%傪僇僶乕丅

丒巗挰懞儗儀儖偺昦堾傊偺傾僋僙僗偼丄5暘寳偱廧柉偺55.14%15暘寳偱98.04%30暘寳偱100%傪僇僶乕丅

丒懞儗儀儖偺恌椕強偺僇僶乕棪偼丄嫃廧廧嫃偱傒傞偲5暘寳偵57.86%10暘寳偱92.65%15暘寳偱99.22%傪僇僶乕丅

丒堏摦帪娫偱廳傒偯偗傪偡傞偲丄5暘寳撪偵30.87%15暘寳撪偵80.46%30暘寳撪偵99.88%傪僇僶乕丅

 

 

115)Vadrevu L, Kanjilal B. Measuring spatial equity and access to maternal health services using enhanced two step floating catchment area method (E2SFCA) - a case study of the Indian Sundaarbans. Int J Equity Health 2016;15:87. doi 10.1186/s12939-016-0376-y

丒僀儞僪偺僒儞僟儖僶儞偵偍偗傞嶻壢傾僋僙僗傪2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僗僥僢僾朄偱夝愅丅ArcGIS傪巊梡丅摴楬偲悈楬偵傛傞僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

60暘摓払寳傪巊梡丅

87懞偺暯嬒偺捈嬤偺嶻壢堛巘傑偱偺強梫帪娫偼暯嬒偱33.81暘丅

87懞偺偆偪52懞偼僀儞僪偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾偺僗僐傾偱僗僐傾儗僗偲側傞丅

10懞偼丄偳傫側嶻壢僒乕價僗偵傕傾僋僙僗偱偒側偄丅

26懞偼丄1000擠晈摉偨傝偺堛巘悢偑1枹枮丅

56懞偼丄1000擠晈摉偨傝偺堛巘悢偑3.54偺暯嬒抣傪壓夞傞丅

 

 

116)Karkee R, Binns CW, Lee AH. Determinants of facility delivery after implementation of safer mother programme in Nepal: a prospective study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2013;13:193.

丒僱僷乕儖偺Kaski抧嬫偱偺巤愝偱偺暘曍傪婯掕偡傞場巕偺夝愅丅

丒摓払帪娫偼搆曕偐忔傝暔偱30暘枹枮丄30偐傜60暘丄60暘挻偱暘椶乮應掕曽朄偺婰嵹側偟乯丅

644恖偺擠晈傪夝愅丅

丒拞摍嫵堢埲忋偺嫵堢傪庴偗傞偲巤愝暘曍偺僆僢僤偼12.39丄嶻慜寬恌傪4夞埲忋庴偗傞偲僆僢僤偼2.15丄帺戭偐傜暘曍巤愝傑偱偺堏摦帪娫偑30暘埲撪偩偲11.61

 

 

117)Miller HJ. Modelling accessibility using space-time prism concepts within geographical information systems. Int J Geogr Information Systems 1991;5:287-301.

丒摓払寳傪夝愅偡傞嵺偺嬻娫帪娫僾儕僘儉奣擮偺採彞丅

丒摓払寳偼帪娫懷偵傛傞曄摦偑偁傞乮儔僢僔儏傾儚乕側偳乯

丒岎嵎揰偺揮夞帪娫傕悢棟揑偵峫椂丅

ArcINFO偵偍偗傞僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偵尵媦丅摓払寳夝愅偵偼丄version俆偱偼偆傑偔懳墳偟偰偄側偄丅

ArcGIS10斉偱偼丄PPAToolbox乮儈儔乕偺巜揈偟偨potential path area乯偑尵媦偝傟偰偄傞丅

http://www.arcgis.com/home/item.html?id=06e3bc6e935341e4a2b2d79bea46d368

 

 

118)Okabe A, Kitamura M. A computational method for market area analysis on a networl. Geographical Analysis 1996;28:330-349.

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偵偍偗傞彜寳夝愅偺奣擮偺採帵丅

丒嵟抁宱楬栤戣偲堏摦帪娫傪寁嶼丅

丒戝婯柾揦曑偵媞偼懌傪傓偗傗偡偄偲偡傞Huff儌僨儖偵傛傞廳傒晅偗傪峴偭偰僱僢僩儚乕僋忋偱夝愅丅

 

 

119)Miller HJ. Measuring space-time accessibility benefits within transportation networks: basic theory and computational procesures. Geographical Analysis 1999;31:187-212.

丒傾僋僙僗傪夝愅偡傞儌僨儖傪俁偮採帵

--嬻娫帪娫僾儕僘儉奣擮乮摓払寳夝愅乯

--枺椡傾僋僙僗儌僨儖乮枺椡偑媞傪堷偒偮偗傞乯

--桝憲丄搚抧棙梡僔僗僥儉偵傛傞曋塿(塣捓側偳乯丅

 

 

120)Gittelsohn A, Powe NR. Small area variation in health care delivery in Maryland. Health Ser Res 1995;30:295-317.

丒儊儕乕儔儞僪廈偵偍偗傞彫抧堟夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偺寁應曽朄偼柧帵偝傟偰偄側偄丅

丒惍宍奜壢丄寣娗奜壢丄嬞媫惈偺崅偔側偄庤弍偱偼丄巤愝偐傜墦偄偲偦偺棙梡棪偑壓偑傞丅

丒廂擖偑懡偄偲嬞媫惈偺崅偄幘姵傗庤媄偱擖堾偡傞棪偼壓偑傞偑丄棽旲弍傗擕朳弅彫弍丄娽豳宍惉弍偺傛偆側嬞媫惈偺掅偄庤媄偺斾棪偼崅偔側傞丅

丒廂擖偑憹偊傞偲姤摦柆幘姵偺斾棪偼壓偑傞偑丄寣娗僶僀僷僗傗僇僥帯椕偺斾棪偼崅偔側傞丅

 

 

121)Nemet GF, Bailey AJ. Distance and health care utilization among the rural elderly. Soc Sci Med 2000;50:1197-1208.

丒僶乕儌儞僩廈僆乕儗傾儞孲偱偺嫃廧抧偲僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛偲偺嫍棧偲庴恌夞悢偲偺夝愅丒嫍棧傗庴恌夞悢偼梄憲偵傛傞傾儞働乕僩偵偰丅GIS偵傛傞夝愅偱偼側偄丅

丒嫍棧偑墦偄傎偳丄庴恌夞悢偼尭傞丅

 

 

122)O'Sullivan D. Using desktop GIS for the investigation of accessibility by public transport: an isochrone approach. Int J Geographical Information Science 2000;14(1): 85-104.

ArcView傪梡偄偨摓払寳偺億儕僑儞傪巊梡偟偰丄岞嫟岎捠婡娭乮揝摴丄抧壓揝丄僶僗乯傪棙梡偟偨摓払寳夝愅丅

丒僌儔僗僑乕傪儌僨儖偲偟偰偄傞丅

 

 

123)Matsumoto M, Ogawa T, Kashima S, et al. The impact of rural hospital closure on equity of commuting time for haemodialysis patients: simulation analysis using the capacity-distance model. Int J Health Geogr 2012;11:26.

丒峀搰導撪偺7374恖偺摟愅姵幰偵偮偄偰抧曽5昦堾側偄偟偼搒巗晹4昦堾偺暵嵔偑摉偨傞傾僋僙僗偺曄壔傪夝愅丅

GIS偱摴楬嫍棧儌僨儖偲昦堾偺懳墳擻椡儌僨儖偱夝愅丅導撪偵98偺摟愅巤愝偁傝丅

ArcGIS棙梡丅嫃廧抧偼彫抧堟偼戝帤丒挰柤丠

丒摟愅巤愝偼梄曋斣崋丅

丒抧曽偲搒巗晹偺傾僋僙僗帪娫偺拞墰抣偼丄抧曽15暘丄搒巗晹7暘丅

丒抧曽5昦堾偺暵嵔偱嫍棧儌僨儖偱偼36.1%偺姵幰偑庴恌愭曄峏丅僕僯學悢偼16%忋徃丅90暘埲忋偺傾僋僙僗帪娫偺姵幰偼72攞偲側傞丅

丒搒巗晹偺4昦堾偺暵嵔偱偼姵幰傾僋僙僗偵塭嬁偼側偄丅

 

 

124)Branas CC, MacKenzie EJ, Williams JC, et al. Access to trauma centers in the United States. JAMA 2005;293:2626-2633.亂廳梫亃

丒傾儊儕僇偺奜彎僙儞僞乕傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅

45暘偲60暘傪慖傫偩偺偼goldenhour60暘偱偁傞偨傔

丒奜彎僙儞僞乕偺僨乕僞儀乕僗偲奺僽儘僢僋偺恖岥偱夝愅丅

丒僾儘僌儔儉偼僼僅乕僩儔儞

丒帺摦幵懍搙偼丄搒巗晹偱帪懍20.1儅僀儖乮栺32僉儘乯丄搒巗廃曈偱帪懍47.5儅僀儖乮栺76僉儘乯丄揷幧偱帪懍56.4儅僀儖(90僉儘乯偲偟偰寁嶼丅

丒嫍棧寁應偺曽朄偼徻嵶傪彂偒崬傑傟偰偄側偄偑Love傜偺榑暥傪堷梡偲偟偰偄傞丅

丒慡暷偱45暘埲撪偲60暘埲撪偵摓拝偱偒傞恖岥偺斾棪偼偦傟偧傟69.2%偍傛傃84.1%

4670枩恖偼1帪娫埲撪偵摓拝偱偒側偄偑丄4280枩恖偼20埲忋偺巤愝偵1帪娫埲撪偵摓拝偱偒傞丅

26.7%偍傛傃27.7%45暘偍傛傃60暘埲撪偵摓拝偱偒傞偑丄僿儕僐僾僞乕偵傛傞丅

 

 

125)Hameed SM, Schuurman N, Razek T et al. Access to trauma systems in Canada. J Trauma 2010;69:1350-1361.亂廳梫亃

丒僇僫僟偱偺儗儀儖侾偲俀偺奜彎僙儞僞乕乮僇僫僟崙撪偵32偐強丄奺導偺嫵堢昦堾側偄偟偼拞妀昦堾乯傊偺傾僋僙僗偺尋媶丅

GIS傪梡偄偨僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅摴楬偼CanMap Route Logistics傪巊梡丅

丒夝愅偼Arc GIS偲僱僢僩儚乕僋傾僫儕僔僗僄僋僗僥儞僔儑儞傪巊梡丅侾丄俀丄4帪娫摓払寳傪夝愅丅

丒偙偺偆偪丄僑乕儖僨儞傾儚乕偺栤戣偱1帪娫摓払寳傪巊梡丅

丒昦堾偲僙儞僒僗僽儘僢僋偲偺嫍棧傪僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

1帪娫寳撪偵嫃廧偡傞恖岥偺斾棪偼77.5%偩偑丄抧棟揑側偽傜偮偒偑偁傞丅

 

 

126)Higgs G. A literature review of the use of GIS-based measures of access to health care services. Health Serv Outcome Res methodol 2004;5(2):119-139.

GIS傪梡偄偨堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偺憤愢丅

GIS偱偺僶僢僼傽乕偺棙梡丄僆乕僶乕儗僀偱偺姵幰強嵼抧偺昞帵丄僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅傪徯夘丅

丒廧柉偺埵抲偼丄僌儕僢僪傗ZIP傪巊偆偙偲偑懡偄丅

 

 

127)Kwan MP, Hong XD. Network-based constraints-oriented choice set formaion using GIS. Geographical Systems 1998;5:139-162.

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺嬻娫帪娫惂栺壓偱偺堏摦偺儌僨儖丅乮嬻娫帪娫僾儕僘儉乯

ArcINFO傪巊梡丅

丒懍搙惂尷丄堦曽捠峴丄岎嵎揰偱偺抶墑側偳偺懍搙傪婯掱偡傞場巕偑偁傞丅

丒抶墑帪娫偲偟偰偼丄忔傝姺偊丄懸偪帪娫丄挀幵側偳偑偁傞丅

丒偝傜偵偦偺奨偺摴楬偵娭偡傞屄恖偺抦幆偺栤戣傕偁傞丅

丒偟偨偑偭偰丄屄恖偛偲偺僾儕僘儉儌僨儖偑昁梫丅

丒幚嵺偺岎捠偱偺嵞尰偑側偄偲丄儌僨儖偼尰幚偐傜墦偔棧傟傞丅

 

 

128)Kivell P, Mason K. Trauma systems and major injury centers for the 21st century: an option. Heath Place 1999;5:99-110.

丒僀僊儕僗慡搚傪3024帪娫365擔偺奜彎僙儞僞乕偱僇僶乕偡傞峔憐丅

丒僙儞僒僗偲曐寬摉嬊偺帒椏偱摓払寳傪夝愅

丒偟偐偟丄GIS僜僼僩偺尵媦傗夝愅曽朄偺徻嵶偼側偟丅50噏偺僶僢僼傽乕傪僙儞僞乕偐傜嶌傝丄恖岥斾棪傪夝愅偟偰偄傞傛偆偱偁傞丅

 

 

129)Miller HJ,Wu YH. GIS software for measuring space-time accessibility in transportation planning and analysis. GeoInformatica 2000;43(2):141-159.

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱傾僋僙僗偱偼側偔丄岎捠婡娭偺僗儖乕僾僢僩傪夝愅丅

ArcINFOC++傪棙梡丅

丒僜僼僩僂僃傾偺嶌惉偵偼丄嬻娫帪娫僾儕僘儉丄巤愝偺枺椡惈丄奺屄恖偺曋塿傪峫椂丅

 

 

130)Bowring BR. Total inverse solution for the geodesic and great elliptic. Survey Review 1996;22:261(461-476.)

丒抧媴偺媴柺偲應抧慄傗懭墌偺媡栤戣夝丅乮撪梕棟夝偱偒偢乯

 

 

131)Jones AP, Bentham G, Horwell C. Health service accessibility and deaths from asthma. Int J Epidemiol 1999;28:101-105.

丒僀僊儕僗偵偍偗傞傊偒抧偱偺歜懅巰朣乮768椺乯偺夝愅丅

丒嫍棧傗帪娫應掕偼ArcINFO傪巊梡丅

丒廧強偼仹丄堛椕婡娭偼NHS偺僀儎乕僽僢僋傪巊梡丅

1師側偄偟2師堛椕婡娭傊偺堏摦帪娫偑10暘偺傃傞偲巰朣偺憡懳婋尟搙偼1.07攞乮P=0.04)偲側傞丅乮偟偐偟丄偄傠偄傠側岎棈場巕傪彍偔偲P抣偑桳堄偱側偔側傞乯

 

 

132)Joyce CM, Wang WC, Cheng TC. Changes in doctors' working hours: a longiotudinal analysis. Med Care Res Rev 2015;72(5):605-621.

丒崑偵偍偗傞堛巘偺楯摥帪娫偲枮懌搙偺挷嵏乮2008-2012擭乯

2319恖丄墑傋11595恖丒挷嵏乮5帪揰傪挷嵏乯丅堛巘偺儚乕僋傾儞僪僶儔儞僗偺傾儞働乕僩挷嵏傪幚巤丅摉弶偼43.04帪娫/廡偱4擭娫偱0.14帪娫/廡尭彮丅

丒夁嫀偺暥專偱偼堛巘偺暯嬒楯摥帪娫偼丄1997擭偵偼47.6帪娫/廡丄2012擭偵偼42.7帪娫/廡丅偟偐偟丄崅楊堛巘偼丄廡43帪娫偐傜廡10帪娫掱搙尭彮偟偰偄傞丅

丒偙偺婜娫偵楯摥帪娫偼尭彮丅摿偵丄抝惈堛巘丄崅楊堛巘丄巕嫙偺彮側偄堛巘偱尠挊丅

丒愱栧堛丄懱挷偺埆偄乮摥偒夁偓乯偺堛巘偵偼帪抁偼枮懌搙崅偄丅

丒楯摥帪娫偑挿偄偲枮懌搙彮側偄丅

 

 

133)Wan N, Zou B, Steinberg T. A three-step floating catchment area method for analyzing spatial access to health services. Int J Geogr Inform Sci 2012;26(6):1073-1089.

2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄偵堏摦偵偐偐傞僐僗僩傪壛枴偟偨嫞崌乮堏摦帪娫偺挿偝偱廳傒偯偗傪攦偊傞乯傪娷傔偨3抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄

ArcGIS傪巊梡丅僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛偼僥僉僒僗曐寬摉嬊偐傜儕僗僩傪擖庤丄廧柉偺僽儘僢僋偼2000擭偺僙儞僒僗偐傜丅

丒庴恌偵娭偡傞堏摦偼丄捈慄嫍棧傗僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧傛傝傕巊偄彑庤偑椙偄堏摦僐僗僩乮偙偙偱偼堏摦帪娫乯傪梡偄偨丗ArcGISOrigin-Destination Cost Matrix娭悢丗嵟抁宱楬摍傪弌偡娭悢偱堏摦帪娫偺寁應偑偱偒傞乯

丒僥僉僒僗廈偺僆乕僗僠儞丒僒儞傾儞僩僯僆偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅偺椺帵丅

 

134)Dai D, Wang F. Geographic disparities in accessibility to food stores in southwest Mississippi. Environ Plann B: Plann Des 2011;38:659-677.

丒僇乕僱儖枾搙乮巤愝偐傜偺堦掕偺嫍棧寳偱妋棪偑尭彮偡傞廳傒偯偗娭悢乯傪壛枴偟偨2抜奒僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄偱儈僔僔僢僺廈偺撿惣晹偺怘昳揦嵒敊乮怘昳偺攦偄暔擄柉乯傪夝愅丅

51.7枩恖偺抧堟偱907偺怘椏採嫙揦偑偁傞丅廧柉偺嫃廧抧偼僙儞僒僗傪棙梡乮恖岥偱廳傒偯偗偟偨僽儘僢僋偺僙儞僩儘僀僪乯丅

ArcGIS傪巊梡偟丄15儅僀儖偺僶僢僼傽乕傪嶌惉丅

丒搒巗晹偺幮夛宱嵪揑偵栤戣偁傞恖偼怘椏昳揦偺傾僋僙僗偼埆偔側偐偭偨偑丄幵偺側偄壠掚傗掅廂擖偺夁掱偱偼傾僋僙僗偑埆偐偭偨丅

丒傑偨丄暥壔揑偵忈暻偺偁傞抧嬫偱偼傾僋僙僗偑埆偐偭偨丅

 

135)Lisonkova S, Sheps SB, Janssen PA, et al. Birth outcomes among older mothers in rural versus urban areas: a residence-based approach. J Rural Health 2011;27:211-219.

丒揷幧乮1枩恖枹枮偺挰懞乯偲搒巗晹偺崅楊弌嶻乮35嵨埲忋乯偺梊屻偺斾妑丅僇僫僟偺僽儕僥傿僢僔儏僐儘儞價傾廈丅

29698恖傪懳徾丅嫍棧寁嶼偼ArcGIS偱捈慄嫍棧傪寁應丅

丒揷幧偺崅楊弌嶻偱偼丄掗愗傗SFD偺斾棪偑掅偔丄廃嶻婜巰朣傗LFD偺斾棪偑崅偐偭偨丅

丒嬞媫掗愗傗傒渪渹丄NICU擖堾偼嵎偑側偐偭偨丅

丒昦堾傊偺嫍棧偑挿偄偲廃嶻婜巰朣棪偼崅偔側偭偨丅

 

 

136)Zulian G,Donisi V,Secco G, et al.How are caseload and service utilizatrion of psychiatric services influenced by distance? A geographical approach to the study of community-based mental health services. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2011;46:881-891.

丒僀僞儕傾偱偺惛恄昦姵幰偺抧堟惛恄昦僙儞僞乕丄惛恄壢擖堾丄惛恄壢奜棃偲嫃廧抧偐傜偺嫍棧偺夝愅丅12347恖丅

丒嫍棧應掕偼僕僆僐乕僪壔偟偨僨乕僞傪ArcGISNetwork Extension偱夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偑10僉儘棧傟傞偲丄抧堟惛恄昦C偺恖岥偵懳偡傞棙梡幰偼80%丄擖堾巤愝偺棙梡幰偼60%丄奜棃庴恌幰偼85%尭彮偡傞乮悢暘偺侾偲側傞堄枴乯丅

丒扨夞婣傪峴偆偲丄嫍棧偑乮扨埵偼1噏偲巚傢傟傞偑婰嵹側偟乯挿偔側傞偲丄媫惈婜偺擖堾昦搹偺棙梡偑1.5%丄抧堟惛恄昦C偺棙梡偑2.0%丄奜棃偺棙梡偑2.1%尭彮偟偨丅

 

137)Senior ML, New SJ, Francis BJ. Geographic influences on the uptake of infant immunizations: 2. disaggregate analysis. Environment Planning A 1993;25:467-479.

丒僀僊儕僗偱偺曣恊偵愙庬偵娭偡傞僀儞僞價儏乕丅

丒愙庬棪傪忋偘傞偺偵偼丄巕堢偰傊偺娭梌丄壠懓偺昦婥丄嫵堢丄曅恊偑娭梌丅

丒嫍棧偲愙庬棪偲偺娭楢偼偼偭偒傝偟側偄丅

丒嫍棧應掕偺徻嵶偺婰嵹側偟丅

 

138)Slack R, Ferguson B, Ryder S. Analysis of hospitalizaiotn rates by electoral ward: relationship to accessibility and deprivation data. Health Ser Management Res 1007;10:24-31.

丒僀僊儕僗偺抧嬫曐寬摉嬊偵偍偗傞昦堾偺棙梡搙崌偄偺夝愅丅

丒堏摦帪娫偼徻嵶偼側偄傕偺偺丄慖嫇嬫傪梡偄偰摴楬偱偺強梫帪娫傪寁應丅帪娫偼丄5暘枹枮丄5偐傜10暘丄10偐傜15暘偺傛偆偵5暘偛偲偵嬫暘丅

丒昦堾傊偺傾僋僙僗乮巹揑偍傛傃岞嫟岎捠婡娭乯偼丄昦堾偺棙梡偵塭嬁傪梌偊傞丅

 

139)Shigeoka H. The effect of patient cost sharing on utilization, health, and risk protection. Am Econ Rev 2014;104(7):2152-2184.

丒擔杮偱偼丄69嵨偵斾傋偰70嵨偱偼帺屓晧扴偑60偐傜80%尭彮偡傞丅

70嵨偵側傞偲奜棃偲擖堾偺庴恌夞悢偼憹偊傞丅

丒偟偐偟丄巰朣棪傗滊姵棪偵戝偒側塭嬁傪梌偊側偄丅

 

140)Silverstein M, Sales AE, LKoepsell TD. Health care utilization and expenditures associated with child care attendance: a nationally representative sample. Pediatrics 2003;111(4):e371.

丒曐堢強偵峴偭偰偄傞帣偲偦傟埲奜偺帣乮0偐傜5嵨帣乯偲偺幘姵偺偐偐傝曽偵娭偡傞挷嵏丅

871恖傪懳徾偱484恖偑恊埲奜偺曐堢傪庴偗偰偄偨乮48.4%偑曐堢強丄9%偑桭恖丄20%偑壠傊偺僔僢僞乕乯丅

丒曐堢強偵捠強偡傞巕嫙偼丄奜棃庴恌夞悢丄媬媫奜棃庴恌偑懡偔丄堛椕旓傕崅偐偭偨丅

 

141)Gabrysch S, Campbell OMR. Still too far to walk: literature review of the detereminants of dilivery service use. BMC Pergnancy Childbirth 2009;9:34 doi:10.1186/1471-2393-9-34.

丒敪揥搑忋崙偱弉楙幰偺偄傞巤愝弌嶻偑懡偄偺偱丄巤愝棙梡偺場巕傪攃埇偡傞偨傔偺暥專儗價儏乕丅

丒崅楊弌嶻丄嫵堢丄晉丄彮嶻丄慜夞巤愝弌嶻丄弌惗慜専嵏偑巤愝弌嶻傪梊抦偝偣傞場巕丅丒抧棟揑側嫍棧偼棙梡傪尭傜偡偑丄寛掕揑側偙偲偼尵偊側偄丅

 

142)Haynes R, Jones A, Sauerzapf V, et al. Validation of travel times to hospital estimated by GIS. Int J Health Geogr 2006;5:40 doi:10.1186/1476-072X-5-40

丒僀儞僌儔儞僪杒晹偵偍偗傞475恖偺偑傫姵幰偺8昦堾傊偺帺摦幵偵傛傞傾僋僙僗帪娫傪GIS偩偗偱悇掕丅亂廳梫亃

丒嵟抁嫍棧宱楬傪妱傝弌偟偰偦偺堏摦帪娫傪悇掕丅傑偨丄幚嵺偺堏摦帪娫偲捈慄嫍棧偲斾妑丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

丒悇掕偟偨帪娫偲幚應偺堏摦帪娫偼嫮偄憡娭乮憡娭學悢0,836乯丅

50%偺堏摦帪娫偼5暘埲撪丄77%10暘埲撪丄90%15暘埲撪丅

丒悇掕抣偑夁戝丒夁彫偼懳徧惈偁傝丅

丒幚應抣偑帪娫挻夁偟偨応崌丄偦偺尨場偼廰懾丅

 

143)Thaddeus S, Maine D. Too far to walk: maternal mortality in context. Soc Sci Med 1994;38(8):1091-1110.乮傛偔傢偐傜偢丄偨偩偨偩挿偄乯

丒擠晈巰朣偵娭偡傞暥專揑側峫嶡

丒曣懱巰朣偺梫場偲偟偰偼丄1丏堛椕傪庴偗傛偆偲偡傞寛抐偺抶傟丄俀丏堛椕婡娭傊偺摓払偺抶傟丄3丏揔愗側帯椕傪庴偗傞偙偲偺抶傟偑偁傞丅偙偺偆偪丄寛抐偲摓払偵嫍棧偼娭學丅

丒嫍棧偑挿偄庴恌偼尭傞偑丄懡偔偺廧柉偼搒巗晹偵嵼廧偟偰偄傞丅

 

144)Cheng Y, Wang J, Rosenberg MW. Spacial access to residential care resources in Beijing, China. Int J Health Geogr 2012;11:32

丒拞崙杒嫗巗偺榁恖夘岇巤愝傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

丒嵟抁宱楬朄偲2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄傪巊梡丅

丒帪娫嫍棧偩偗傪巊偆偲丄搒巗廃曈晹傛傝拞怱晹偱傾僋僙僗偑椙偄丅

丒偟偐偟丄帪娫嫍棧偵夘岇巤愝偺帒尮傪壛枴偡傞偲偦傟傎偳偱傕側偄丅

丒嫃廧抧偼僙儞僒僗丄夘岇巤愝偼巗摉嬊偐傜丅

丒帺摦幵偺懍搙偼摴楬庬偛偲偵愝掕丅ArcGIS傪巊梡丅

 

145)Hvelplund A, Galatius S, Medsen M, et al. Influence of distance from home to invasive centre on invasive treatment after acute coronary syndrome: a nationalwide study of 24910 patients. Heart 2011;97:27-32.

丒僨儞儅乕僋偺怱嬝峓嵡偲晄埨掕嫹怱徢姵幰偺帺戭偐傜怤廝揑慬抲偺偱偒傞巤愝傑偱偺嫍棧偲怤廝揑側張抲偺幚巤棪偲偺斾妑丅24910恖傪懳徾丅

33%21km枹枮丄33%2164km34%64km挻偵嫃廧丅

丒嫍棧偼摴楬偺堏摦嫍棧乮Statistics Denmark偑夝愅偲偟偐側偄乯丅

21km枹枮偱偼怱僇僥偱偺傾儞僊僆僌儔僼傿乕傪77%幚巤丄64km挻偱偼68%

丒嵞慳捠棪偼丄墦曽偺姵幰偺曽偑埆偄丅

 

146)Raknes G, Hansen EH, Hunskaar S. Distance and utilization of out-of-hours services in an Norwegian urban/rural district: an ecological study. MBMC Health Ser Res 2013;13:222.

丒僲儖僂僃乕偺帪娫奜庴恌乮僾儔僀儅儕働傾傪採嫙偡傞帪娫奜堛椕婡娭傊偺庴恌乯偲嫃廧抧偐傜偺嫍棧傪夝愅丅

丒嫍棧應掕偼丄ArcView偱偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅恖岥偺僙儞僩儘僀僪偲堛椕婡娭偲偺嫍棧應掕丅妋擣偵偼丄Google Map傪巊梡丅

丒夝愅懳徾恖悢偼141,342恖丅

丒僙儞僩儘僀僪偲巤愝偲偺嫍棧傪寁應丅

丒嫍棧偑43僉儘偱奜棃庴恌棪偼敿暘偵側傞丅媫惈幘姵偱傕50僉儘偱庴恌棪偼22僷乕僙儞僩尭彮丅

 

147)Goodman DC, Barff RA, Fisher ES. Geographic bariiers to child health services in rural northern New England: 1980 to 1989. 1992;8(2):106-113.

丒堛椕帒尮偑戝搒巗埲奜偱傕朙晉側抧堟乮杒僯儏乕僀儞僌儔儞僪乯偱偺偙偳傕偺寬峃僒乕價僗傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

936挰偺363,443恖偺巕嫙傪懳徾丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅乮曽朄偼徻嵶側偟乯

30暘埲忋傾僋僙僗帪娫偑偐偐傞恌椕壢偼丄彫帣壢堛偑15.5%丄媬媫偑9.9%偱偁偭偨丅堦曽丄壠掚堛傗堦斒堛偼1.8%偵夁偓側偐偭偨丅

 

148)Nicholl J, West J, Goodacre S, et al. The relationship between distance to hospital and patient mortality in emergencies: an observational study. Emerg Med J 2007;24:665-668. doi: 10.1136/emj.2007.047654

丒媬媫斃憲偵偍偄偰僀僊儕僗偺27媫惈婜昦堾傑偱偺嫍棧偲惗柦偵婋尟偺偁傞姵幰10315恖偺巰朣棪偲偺娭學丅

丒尰応偲昦堾偲偼捈慄嫍棧偱寁應丅0-58km偱拞墰抣5噏丅

丒尰応偐傜媫惈婜昦堾傑偱偺嫍棧偑1噏怢傃傞偲巰朣棪偺僆僢僤偼1.02攞偲側傞丅

 

149)Zielinski A, Borgquist L, Halling A. Diatance to hospital and socioeconomic status influence secondary healthcare use. Scand J Primary Health Care 2013;31:83-88.

丒僗僂僃乕僨儞偱偺幮夛宱嵪揑側梫場偲昦堾傑偱偺嫍棧偑昦堾偵偍偗傞2師堛椕偺棙梡偵塭嬁傪梌偊傞偐夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偼19km埲壓丄20-40km40km挻偱暘椶乮嫍棧應掕朄偺婰嵹側偟乯

丒妛楌偑掅偄恖偼ER傪懡偔棙梡偡傞孹岦丅

丒廂擖傗妛楌偑崅偄恖偼2師堛椕偱偺僐僗僩偼崅偄偑嵼堾擔悢偼彮側偄孹岦丅

丒壠偐傜昦堾偑40km傪挻偊傞帠椺偱偼2師堛椕偺棙梡棪偑崅偐偭偨丅

 

 

150)Curtis S, Congdon P, Almog M, et al. County variation in use of inpatient and ambulatory psychiatric care in New York State 1999-2001: need and supply influences in a stractural model. Health Place 2009;15:568-577.

NY廈偺62孲偵偍偗傞15偐傜64嵨偺惛恄壢棙梡偺夝愅丅

need index乮昻崲丄撈嫃丄恖庬丄恖岥枾搙乯偱曗惓丅

丒嫍棧偼捈慄嫍棧傪棙梡丅

丒昦彴傪桳偡傞惛恄壢偵嬤偄抧堟偼擖堾棪偑崅偔丄奜棃傊偺徯夘棪偑掅偄丅

 

151)Mueller S, Exeter DJ, Petousis-Harris H, et al. Measuring disparities in immunization coverage among children in New Zealand Health Place 2012;18:1217-1223.NZ偱偺12偐寧帣乮161230恖暘乯偺梊杊愙庬棪偺偽傜偮偒偵娭偡傞夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偲愙庬棪偺夝愅偼側偄丅

丒慡崙偺愙庬棪搊榐傪棙梡丅慡崙偱偼愙庬棪偼85.4%

丒恖庬丄昻崲搙丄抧棟揑梫場丅惗傑傟擭偵傛傞偽傜偮偒偨丅傪傒

丒昻崲搙傪挷惍偟偰傕丄儅僆儕傗懠偺彮悢柉懓偺愙庬棪偼掅偄丅

丒愙庬棪偵撿杒奿嵎乮撿偑崅偄乯偑懚嵼丅

 

152)Grzybowski S, Stoll K, Kornelsen J. Distance matters: a popualtion besed study examining access to maternity services for rural women. BMC Health Ser Res 2011;11:147. 亂廳梫亃

丒僇僫僟丒僽儕僥傿僢僔儏僐儘儞價傾廈偱彫婯柾嶻堾偑暵嵔偝傟偨偙偲偵敽偆廃嶻婜偺栤戣偵偮偄偰夝愅丅

丒昦堾偺摓払寳傪夁嫀偺暥專偱偼60暘埲撪偲偟偨偑丄1-2帪娫丄2-4帪娫丄4帪娫埲忋傪捛壛偟偨丅GIS傪梡偄偨僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅乮丠乯丅

20廡埲崀偺擠晈丒怴惗帣49402椺偺夝愅

丒嶻堾偐傜4帪娫埲忋偱偼廃嶻婜巰朣偺僆僢僤偑3.17攞丅

丒愱栧堛偑尒偰偄傞60暘寳堟撪偱偼NICU擖堾偼1000恖偁偨傝42擔偩偑丄1-2帪娫寳偺怴惗帣偱偼100擔丄2-4帪娫寳偱偼179擔丅

 

153)Boyle PJ, Kudlac H, Williams AJ. geographical variation in the referral of patients with chironic end stage renal failure for renal replacement therapy. Q J med 1996;89:151-157.

丒僀僊儕僗偺撿惣僂僃乕儖僘偵偍偗傞恖岺摟愅傗恡堏怉巤愝偲嫃廧抧偐傜偺嫍棧偲偺憡娭偺夝愅丅

539恖偺姵幰傪懳徾丅

丒嫃廧抧偼恖岥偱廳傒偯偗偟偨僙儞僩儘僀僪傪梡偄偰丄堛椕巤愝偲偺捈慄嫍棧傪應掕丅

丒嫍棧偼1.08km偐傜94.61km偱拞墰抣偼36.45km

16-29嵨丄60嵨埲忋偺姵幰偱偼丄嫍棧偑挿偄傎偳庴恌偺斾棪偑掅壓偡傞丅偟偐偟丄30偐傜60嵨偱偼嫍棧偺塭嬁側偟丅

 

154)Turnbull J, Martin D, lattimer V, et al. Does distance matter? Geographical variation in GP out-of-hours service use: an observational study. Br J Gen Pract 2008;58:471-477.

丒僀僊儕僗偺Devon抧曽偱偺嫃廧抧偐傜偺嫍棧偲GP偺帪娫奜棙梡傪偡傞斾棪偺斾妑丅

丒嫍棧偼捈慄嫍棧偺寁應丅

丒姵幰悢偼34229恖丅

丒姵幰廧強偼仹丅

丒嫍棧偼屲暘埵偲偟丄0-2.1km2.2-3.7km3.8-5.3km5.4-9.9km10噏埲忋偵暘偗傞丅丒嫍棧傪屲暘埵偱昞偡偲丄1屲暘埵偱偼棙梡棪偼172/1000恖擭丄2屲暘埵偱偼162/1000恖擭丄3屲暘埵偱偼159/1000恖擭偲嫍棧偑墦偄傎偳帪娫奜偺棙梡偼彮側偄丅

丒棙梡棪偵偍偄偰搒巗晹偲抧曽偲偺嵎偑嵟傕戝偒偄偺偼0偐傜4嵨丅

 

155)Carr-Hill RA, Rice N, Roland M. Socioeconomic determinants of tates of consultation in gerneral practice based on fourth national morbidity survey of general practices. BMJ 1996;312:1008-1013.

丒僀僊儕僗偱偺GP傪棙梡偡傞斾棪偺崅偄場巕偺夝愅丅

丒懳徾偼502493恖丅

丒塱懕揑偵幘姵傪桳偡傞幰丄幐嬈幰丄庁壠廧傑偄丄僀儞僪弌恎幰丄晇偺偄傞彈惈丄椉恊偺偄傞巕偳傕丄搒巗晹嫃廧幰丄恌椕強偑嬤偄恖偑棙梡棪偑崅偄丅

 

156)Sampalis JS, Lavoie A, Williams JI, et al. Impact of on-site care, prehospital time, and level of in-hospital care on survicial in severely injured patients. J Trauma 1993;34(2):252-261.60暘偱嬫愗傞棟桼亃

丒廳徢奜彎姵幰偺梊屻偺尋媶丅尰応偱偺働傾丄摓拝帪娫丄昦堾偱偺帯椕儗儀儖偱夝愅丅

ALS偺幚巤偺桳柍偼娭學側偟丅

丒摓拝帪娫偑60暘傪挻偊傞偲巰朣偺僆僢僘偼3.0攞丅

丒儗儀儖侾偺昦堾偱帯椕傪庴偗傞偲巰朣棪偑38%掅壓丅

 

157)samalis JS, Denis R, lavoie A, et al. Trauma care regionalization: a process-outcome evaluation. J Trauma 1999;46(4):565-581.

丒僇僫僟丒働儀僢僋偵偍偗傞奜彎僙儞僞乕偺廤栺壔乮4偺嶰師丄33偺擇師丄30偺堦師丄32埨掕壔偺僙儞僞乕乯

12208恖傪懳徾丅

丒巰朣棪偼丄廤栺壔慜52%偱廤栺壔奐巒帪32%丄搑拞9%丄姰椆屻偵偼18%

丒摓払帪娫偺暯嬒偼62暘偐傜44暘偵抁弅丅

丒堦師丄擇師偲斾傋偰擇師丄嶰師偺巰朣棪偼掅壓丅

 

158) Juarez PD, Robinson PL, Mattgews-Juarez P. 100% access, zero helath disparities, and GIS: an improved methodology for designating health professions shortage areas. J Health Social Policy 2002;16(1-2):155-167.

丒儘僒儞僛儖僗偺堛巘晄懌抧堟傪ArcGIS偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丄ArcView偱専弌丅

丒摓払寳偼摴楬偱偺堏摦偱30暘埲撪偲偟偨丅

丒偙傟傑偱偺庤朄偱偼3抧堟偩偗偩偭偨偑丄GIS偵傛傝廧柉3000恖偵1恖枹枮偺堛巘抧堟偑24偐強専弌偝傟偨丅

 

159)Jones AP, Bentham DG, Harrison BDW, et al. Accessibility and health service utilization for asthma in Norfolf, England. J Public Health Med 1998;20(3):312-317.

丒僀僊儕僗偺傊偒抧偱偺歜懅姵幰偺堛椕婡娭棙梡偺傾儞働乕僩挷嵏丅僀僊儕僗偼1960擭戙偐傜堛椕婡娭偺廤栺壔偑恑傓丅

丒捈嬤偺堛椕婡娭傊偺堏摦帪娫偼ArcINFOArcGIS傪巊梡丅嫍棧偼捈慄嫍棧丅

丒僲乕僂傿僢僠曐寬摉嬊偺娗妽抧堟偺恖岥偐傜10%傪拪弌偟偨20-44嵨偺9764恖傪挷嵏懳徾偲偟偨丅廧柉偺嫃廧抧偼仹傪棙梡丅

GP偺強嵼抧堟乮settlement乯偐傜棧傟偰曢傜偡恖偼GP傊偺庴恌僆僢僘偑3.07攞掅偔側傞丅

GP偐傜偺堏摦帪娫偑1暘挿偔側傞乮嫍棧偺拞墰抣偼3km)偲奜棃庴恌夞悢偺僆僢僘偑0.79攞偵側傞丅

丒媫惈婜昦堾偐傜偺堏摦嫍棧偑1暘怢傃傞乮嫍棧偺拞墰抣偼19km乯偲庴恌棪偺僆僢僘偼0.95攞偵側傞丅

 

160)Pitchforth E, Russell E, Van de Pol M. Access to specialist cancer care: is it equitable? Br J Cancer 2002;87:1221-1226.

丒僀僊儕僗丒僗僐僢僩儔儞僪偺捈挵偑傫偺弶夞擖堾偐傜6偐寧埲撪偺壔妛椕朄偺桳柍偵娭偡傞挷嵏丅夝愅懳徾偼7303恖偺姵幰丅

丒捈挵偑傫偺壔妛椕朄偼姵幰偺13.7%偟偐庴偗偰偄側偄丅

丒偑傫僙儞僞乕偑9偐強丄偑傫儐僯僢僩偑24偐強丄旕偑傫僙儞僞乕偑15偐強丅

丒嫍棧應掕偵娭偡傞婰嵹側偟丅

丒帺戭偲偺嫍棧乮95km埲忋偲枹枮偱斾妑乯偼娭學側偔丄嵟弶偵擖堾偟偨昦堾偑乽偑傫僙儞僞乕乿乽偑傫儐僯僢僩乿偐乽旕偑傫僙儞僞乕乿偐偱寛傑傞丅旕偑傫僙儞僞乕偱偼捈挵偑傫偺壔妛椕朄幚巤偺僆僢僘偑0.28偲側傞丅

 

161)Rucker D, Hemmelgarn BR, Lin M, et al. Quality of care and mortality are worse in chronic kidney disease patients living in remote areas. Kidney Int 2011;79:210-217.

丒僇僫僟丒傾儖僶乕僞廈偱偺摟愅傪庴偗偰偄側偄枬惈恡幘姵乮GFR45枹枮乯偺姵幰31452恖偵偍偄偰恡憻撪壢堛傗懠怑庬偵傛傞恡僋儕僯僢僋傊偺傾僋僙僗偲梊屻偲偺夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偺應掕朄偺婰嵹偼側偄偑丄50km枹枮丄50-100km100-200km200km挻偱暘椶丅

丒姵幰嫃廧抧偼梄曋斣崋傪棙梡丅

GIS傪梡偄偰摴楬嫍棧偲堏摦帪娫傪夝愅丅

丒忋婰偺堛椕婡娭傊50km埲忋棧傟偰曢傜偡恖乮6545恖乯偼丄50km埲撪偺廧傓恖偵斾傋偰庴恌夞悢偑彮側偄乮50-100km0.56100-200km0.53200km挻偱0.34偺僆僢僘乯丅

50km埲忋棧傟偰曢傜偡恖乮6545恖乯偼丄1擭娫偺摐擜昦偺HbA1c偺専嵏幚巤棪傕掅偄乮50-100km0.73100-200km0.58200km挻偱0.43偺僆僢僘乯丅

50km埲忋棧傟偰曢傜偡恖乮6545恖乯偼丄巰朣棪偑崅偄乮50-100km1.03100-200km1.05200km挻偱1.23

 

162)Lerner EB, Ronald EP, Moscati RM. The golden hour: scientific fact or medical "urban legend"? Acad Emerg Med 2001;8(7):758-760.

丒媬媫斃憲偺僑乕儖僨儞傾儚乕偺幚懺傪暥專偱挷嵏丅

1帪娫偺僑乕儖僨儞傾儚乕傪妋擣偱偒傞徻嵶側暥專偼尒摉偨傜側偄丅

 

163)SalgadoTM, Moles R, Benrimoj SI, et al. Designing a model to minimize inequities in hemodialysis facilities distribution. Geospatial Health 2011;6(1):5-12.

丒億儖僩僈儖偱堛椕奿嵎傪側偔偡偨傔偵摟愅僙儞僞乕傪偳偆怴愝偟偨傜偄偄偐傪僔儉儗乕僩丅

丒摟愅巤愝偑側偄巗挰懞偐傜捈嬤偺摟愅僙儞僞乕乮億儖僩僈儖偵111巤愝乯傑偱偺堏摦嫍棧傪寁嶼丅

278巗挰懞偺偆偪丄215崙偼摟愅僙儞僞乕偑側偄(側偄巗挰懞偺恖岥偼慡崙恖岥偺37.8%乯丅

丒恖岥偱廳傒偯偗偟偨僙儞僩儘僀僪傪巊梡丅

丒摟愅巤愝傑偱偺暯嬒堏摦嫍棧偼32km丅嫍棧應掕偺徻嵶偼側偄丅

1.5%145551恖乯偼60暘埲忋偺応強偵嫃廧丅13.8%1393770恖乯偼30暘偐傜60暘偺応強偵嫃廧丅

12偺摟愅僙儞僞乕傪怴愝偡傞偲丄6巗挰懞乮34800恖乯偩偗偑60km埲忋偺堏摦偲側傞丅

 

164)Toyabe S. Trend in geographic distribution of physicians in Japan. Int J Equity Health 2009;8:5.

1996擭偲2006擭偺堛巘悢偲偦偺暘晍傪斾妑偡傞栚揑丅僕僯學悢丄傾僩僉儞僜儞學悢丄僥僀儖學悢傪巊梡丅傑偨

丄暘晍傪GIS偱昞帵丅2004擭埲崀偼丄暘晍偺奿嵎偑奼戝偟偨丅昦堾嬑柋堛偼搒巗晹偱偼憹偊偨偑丄抧曽偱偼憹偊側偐偭偨丅偟偐偟丄尋廋堛傪彍偔偲偦偺暘晍偼夵慞偟偨丅椪彴尋廋惂搙偑堛巘偺暘晍奿嵎傪埆壔偝偣偨偐傕偟傟側偄丅

丒堛巘悢偼巗挰懞偛偲乮1996擭偼33702006擭偼1973乯丅1973巗挰懞嬫堟偲偟偰夝愅偼偟偰偄傞傛偆偱偁傞丅

02擭偲06擭偺搒巗偺恖岥婯柾暿偱10枩恖偁偨傝偺堛巘悢偺曄壔傪榑偠偰偄傞偑丄擇師堛椕寳偱偺媍榑偼側偄丅傑偨丄恖岥婯柾10-30枩偺搒巗偑04擭傑偱偼30枩恖婯柾偺搒巗傛傝傕恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢偺儊僕傾儞偑懡偄偑丄偙傟偑06擭偱偼30枩恖埲忋偺搒巗偺傎偆偑恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢偺儊僕傾儞偑憹偊偰偄傞丅

丒偟偐偟丄恖岥偺憹壛偺挊偟偄憹壛抧嬫偲堛巘偺憹壛偺挊偟偄抧嬫偑抧恾忋偱偼堦抳偟偰偍傝丄姵幰懳堛巘偺娭學傪傒傞偆偊偱栤戣偼側偄傛偆偵巚傢傟傞丅

丒搒巗晹偱恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢偑寖憹偟偰丄抧曽偱晄曄偱偁傟偽奿嵎偼奐偄偰傕抧曽偺堛椕偑埆壔偟偨偲偼尵偊側偄偺偱偼側偄偐丅

丒曃嵼偺棟桼偲偟偰丄昦堾傗儀僢僪悢偺尭彮丄怴椪彴尋廋惂搙偵傛傞庒庤堛巘偺搒巗晹傊偺廤拞丄堛嬊惂搙偑椡傪幐偭偰搒巗晹偲抧曽偲偺奿嵎惀惓偑偱偒側偄偙偲傪嫇偘偰偄傞丅

偺僆僢僘乯丅

 

165)Toubiana L, Richard JB, Landais P. Geographical information system for end-stage reral disease: SIGNe, an aid to public health decision making. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005;20:273-277.

GIS偱偺枬惈恡幘姵乮ESRD)傊偺妶梡傪憤愢偲偟偰帵偡丅

GIS偱偼丄僨乕僞廂廤丄僨乕僞夝愅丄堄巚寛掕偺巟墖偑偁傞丅

 

166)Ayyalasomayajula B, Wiebe N, Hemmelgam BR, et al. A novel technique to optimaize facility locations of new nephrology service for remote areas. Ckin Am Soc Nephrol 2011;6:2157-2164. doi: 10.2215/CJN.01820211

丒僇僫僟丒傾儖僶乕僞廈偱恡幘姵偺僋儕僯僢僋傪怴愝偟偨嵺偺傾僋僙僗偺曄壔傪夝愅丅

丒姵幰悢31452恖乮GFR45枹枮乯

ArcGIS偱僶僢僼傽乕偲僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅傪棙梡丅

丒堏摦帪娫偼丄0-30暘丄30-60暘丄60-90暘丄90-120暘丄120暘挻偵暘椶丅

丒嫃廧抧偼梄曋斣崋傪巊梡丅

丒巤愝傪棟憐揑側応強偵愝抲偟偨応崌丄2帪娫埲忋偺庴恌堏摦偺姵幰偼丄2側偄偟3巤愝偱偼32偐傜65%4巤愝偱偼72.5%尭彮乮4巤愝偱偼2.2%偲側傞乯丅

 

167)Ebihara S. More doctors needed before boosting clinical research in Japan. Lancet 2007;369:2076.

丒擔杮偺僪儔僢僌儔僌偑偁傞偙偲傪巜揈偟丄帯尡傪峴偆偵偼堛巘悢偑懌傝側偄偙偲傪帵偡丅(儗僞乕乯

 

168)Phillips RL, Kinman EL, Schnitzer PG, et al. Using geographic information systems to understand health care access. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:971-978.

丒僐儈儏僯僥傿偺曐寬僙儞僞乕偺恌椕抧堟偺昤弌丅

Arc View傪巊梡丅

丒奺曐寬僒儞僞乗偺僒乕價僗僄儕傾傪慻傒崌傢偣偨丅

 

169)Wing P, reymonds C. The availability of physician servoces: a geographic analysis. Health Ser Res 1988;23(5):649-667.

丒堛巘偺僒乕價僗僄儕傾傪寁嶼丅

丒堛巘傊偺庴恌傊偺堏摦嫍棧偑挿偔側傟偽丄庴恌偟傛偆偲偡傞斾棪偼掅壓偡傞偲偺壖掕偱彫抧堟乮梄曋斣崋嬫堟乯偺慜採偱堛椕採嫙傪夝愅偡傞曽朄傪採帵丅

乮廳椡儌僨儖偐丠乯

 

170)Walsh SJ, page PH, Gesler WM. Normative models and healthcare plannning: network-based simulations within a geographic information system environment. Health Ser Res 1997;32:243-260.

丒捈慄嫍棧偺戙傢傝偵GIS偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偵傛傞堏摦帪娫傪巊偭偰捈嬤偲側傞昦堾偺摓払寳傪帵偡丅

ArcGIS傪巊梡丅

丒懳徾偼杒僇儘儔僀僫廈偺偺16孲丄25昦堾懚嵼丅

丒昦堾偲奺彫抧堟偲偺堏摦帪娫偱嬫暿丅

丒幘姵傪尷掕偟偨応崌偼惓忢怴惗帣偲偟丄懳徾昦堾偼弌嶻傪埖偆19昦堾偲偟偨丅

丒姵幰僨乕僞偼ZIP僐乕僪傪梡偄偨丅

丒捈慄嫍棧傛傝傕堏摦帪娫偑揔愗側夝愅偑偱偒傞丅

 

171)Rosero-Bixby L. Spatial access to health care in Costa Rica and its wquity: a GIS-based study. Soc Sci Med 2004;58:1271-1284.

丒僐僗僞儕僇偺堛椕傊偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

丒堛椕巤愝偲廧柉偺僨乕僞乮僙儞僒僗偺17000抧嬫乯偐傜捈慄嫍棧寁應丅

丒帪娫乮暘乯偼14.2亊嫍棧(km)0.59忔偱寁嶼丅

10噏寳偺僶僢僼傽乕傪堛椕婡娭傊偺摓払寳偲偟偰偄傞丅

丒敿悢偼1噏埲撪偵奜棃巤愝偑偁傝丄5噏埲撪偵昦堾偑偁傞丅

丒恖岥偺12-14%傪愯傔傞堛椕夁慳抧堟傪丄4km埲撪偵奜棃偑側偄丄25km埲撪偵昦堾偑側偄丄1恖偁偨傝0.2MD擭帪枹枮偲偟偨丅

1995擭偺夵妚偑峴傢傟偨抧堟偱偼奜棃傾僋僙僗偺堛椕夁慳恖岥偼30%偐傜22%偵尭彮丅

2001擭傑偱偵夵妚偝傟偰偄側偄抧堟偱偼堛椕夁慳恖岥偼7%偐傜9%偵憹壛乮搒巗晹偺夵妚偑揷幧傛傝傕屻偲側偭偰偄傞乯

 

172)Jpseph AE, Bantock PR. Measuring potential physical accessibility to general practitioners in rural areas: a methods and case study. Soc Sci Med 1982;16:85-90.

丒僇僫僟偺抧曽偱偺GP偵懳偡傞傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偼捈慄嫍棧偺傛偆偱偁傞丅

丒椺偱偼嫍棧寳偼丄51015儅僀儖偲偟偰偄傞丅

丒抧曽偱偼堛巘偺娗妽恖岥偑彫偝偄偙偲偑偁傞偑丄搒巗晹廃曈偱偼搒巗晹偺恖岥偵懳偡傞堛巘悢偺懡偝偱憡嶦偝傟傞丅

 

173)Perry B, Gesler W. Physical access to primary health care in Andean Bolivia. Soc Sci Med 2000;50:1177-1188.

丒儃儕價傾偺傾儞僨僗抧曽偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

5km偺僶僢僼傽乕偲1帪娫偺曕峴寳乮偙偺愢柧偼側偟乯撪偺恖岥傪夝愅丅

 

174)Tanihara S, Konbayashi Y, Une H, et al. Urbanization and physician maldistribution: a longitudinal study in Japan. BMC Health Ser Res 2011;11:260.

丒擇師堛椕寳偛偲偵丄恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢偺曄壔傪1998擭偐傜2008擭偵偐偗偰夝愅丅

10擭娫偱恖岥偼0.95%丄堛巘悢偼13.6%憹壛丅

丒恖岥偺曃嵼偑恑傫偱偍傝乮1998擭偵偼僕僯學悢0.497偐傜2008擭偵0.515乯丄抧曽偱偼堛巘悢偺愨懳抣偑尭偭偰傕恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢偑憹偊偰偍傞抧堟傕偁傞丅

丒恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢偼10枩摉偨傝188.1恖偐傜214.0恖偵憹偊偨偑丄僕僯學悢偼1998擭偺0.224偐傜2008擭偺0.214偲傎偲傫偳曄傢傜偢丅

 

175)LaVela SL, Smith B, Weaver FM, et al. geographical proximity and health care utilization in veterans with SCI&D in the USA. Soc Sci Med 204;59:2387-2399.

丒愐懝偺戅栶孯恖偺堛椕巤愝棙梡偲嫍棧偲偺憡娭偺夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偼捈嬤偲棙梡偟偰偄傞巤愝偺2庬椶偵偮偄偰捈慄嫍棧應掕丅

丒巤愝偲姵幰嫃廧抧偺ZIP僐乕僪傪堒搙宱搙偵曄姺丅

丒媴柺嶰妏朄偱偺捈慄嫍棧偱寁應丅

9726恖偺僋儘僗廤寁丅

丒戅堾夞悢偲奜棃庴恌夞悢傪棙梡偺巜昗偲偟偰偄傞丅

丒夞婣暘愅偱丄奜棃丄擖堾偲傕偵嫍棧偑挿偔側傞偲棙梡偡傞斾棪偼尭傞丅

 

176)Weber J, Kwan MP. Evaluating the effects of geographic contexts on individual accessibility: a multilevel approach. Urban Geography 2003;24(8):647-671.

丒搒巗晹乮億乕僩儔儞僪乯偱偺屬梡傗僒乕價僗傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

丒嫍棧傗帪娫偱偼側偔丄屄恖傗壠掚偺摿挜乮擭楊丄恖庬丄廂擖丄怑嬈偦偺懠乯偺曽偑嫮偔丄帪娫嬻娫揑側場巕偼偁傑傝嫮偔側偄丅

 

177)Jones AP, Bentham G. Emergency sedical service accessibility and outcome from road traffic accidents. Public health 1995;109:169-177.

丒僀僊儕僗偺僲乕僂僅乕僋抧曽偺媬媫斃憲帪娫偲梊屻偲偺夝愅丅

丒徚杊杮晹偼18丄媬媫僙儞僞乕偼3偮僲乕僂僅乕僋偵偁傞丅

丒斃憲帪娫偼ArcINFO傪梡偄偨僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

丒偙傟傑偱丄媬媫偺梊屻岦忋偵戝婯柾巤愝傊偺廤栺壔偑峴傢傟偨丅

丒弌摦偐傜姵幰偺堛椕婡娭廂梕傑偱偼52暘埲撪丅

丒廳彎幰偺梊屻偺椙偟偁偟偼丄媬媫斃憲埶棅偐傜昦堾摓拝傑偱偺帪娫偲柍娭學偱偁偭偨丅

 

178)Love RF, Morris JG. Mathematical models of road travel distances. Manage Sci 1979;25(2):130-139.亂傛偔傢偐傜偢亃

丒儅儞僴僢僞儞嫍棧偑捈慄嫍棧傛傝傕搒巗晹偱晄惓妋偲側傞偙偲傪帵偡丅

丒揷幧偺曽偑揔偡傞丅

丒悢妛揑側愢柧偺傒丅僂傿僗僐儞僔儞傪儌僨儖丅

 

179)Cowley RA, Hudson F, Scanlan E, et al. An economical and proved helicopter program for transporting the emergency critically ill and injured patient in Maryland. J Trauma 1973;13(12):1029-1038.

丒儊儕乕儔儞僪偱偺姵幰斃憲偺僿儕棙梡偺憤愢丅

丒僿儕摫擖偲婜傪摨偠偔偟偰帠屘偺巰朣棪偼掅壓丅

丒僿儕斃憲偺摫擖偑偝傟偮偮偁傞偑丄僐僗僩偺栤戣丄抦幆偺晄懌丄庴偗擖傟愱梡堛椕婡娭偺晄懌偑栤戣丅

 

180)Rushton G. Methods to evaluate geographic access to health services. J Public Health Management Practice 1999;5(2):93-100.

GIS偺梡岅偺夝愢丅

丒傾僪儗僗儅僢僠儞僌偺愢柧乮廧強偐傜堒搙宱搙傊乯

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺嵟抁宱楬偵傕尵媦丅

丒媴柺嶰妏朄偵傕尵媦丅

GIS偱偺僶僢僼傽乕偵傕尵媦丅

丒彫抧堟夝愅偱偼丄ZIP僐乕僪傗僙儞僒僗偱偺抧嬫偑奩摉偡傞丅

 

181)Fortney J, Rost K, Warren J. Comparing alternative methods of measuring geographic access to health services. Health Ser Outcome Res Methodol 2000;1(2):173-184.

丒僗僩儕乕僩乮捈慄嫍棧丄僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧丄僱僢僩儚乕僋帪娫乯丄ZIP抧嬫乮捈慄嫍棧乯丄孲扨埵乮恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢傗搒巗丒揷幧乯扨埵偱偺堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅傾乕僇儞僜乕廈偺435抧嬫丅

丒堛椕婡娭3419巤愝偲惛恄曐寬巤愝1034巤愝丅

30暘寳堟傪懳徾偲偟偨丅捈慄嫍棧偱暯嬒17.1儅僀儖丄僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧偱暯嬒21.2儅僀儖偵憡摉丒

丒孲扨埵偱偼3偐傜10%偺傾僋僙僗偺偽傜偮偒傪愢柧偟丄34偐傜70%偺擖庤壜擻惈傪愢柧偱偒傞乮丠乯丅

 

182)Weber J, Kwan MP. Bringing time back in: a study on the influence of travel time variations and facility opening hours on individual accessibility. Professional Geographer 2002;54(2):226-240.

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅傊偺堏摦帪娫偺擔撪曄摦傊偺尵媦丅

丒僆儗僑儞廈偺億乕僩儔儞僪傪堦椺丅

ArcINFOArcView傪巊梡丅

2擔娫偺堏摦挷嵏

丒堏摦懍搙傪堦掕偵偡傞偲丄廰懾帪娫摍偱岆嵎偑奼戝丅

 

183)Larimore WL, Davis A. Relation of infant to the availability of maternity care in rural Florida. J Am Board Fam Pract 1995;8:392-399.

丒僼儘儕僟偺孲偺嶻壢僒乕價僗偺擖庤壜擻惈偲怴惗帣巰朣棪偲偺娭楢丅

丒僼儘儕僟偺怴惗帣巰朣棪偼1000恖偁偨傝9.7

丒暯嬒暘曍悢偼丄壠掚堛50/擭丄嶻晈恖壢堛200/擭丅丂

丒僼儘儕僟偵偼暘曍傪峴偆31恖偺壠掚堛偲974恖偺嶻晈恖壢堛偑1991擭偵偼偄偨丅

67偺僼儘儕僟偺孲偺偆偪47孲偱偼暘曍傪庢傝埖傢側偐偭偨丅

丒怴惗帣巰朣棪偲嶻壢僒乕價僗偺擖庤壜擻惈偵偼晧偺憡娭偑偁傝丄1恖偺壠掚堛偑尭傞偲怴惗帣巰朣偼2.3%忋徃偟丄1恖偺嶻晈恖壢堛偑尭傞偲9.6%忋徃偟偨丅

丒怴惗帣巰朣棪偺偽傜偮偒偺17.6%偼丄嶻壢僒乕價僗偺擖庤壜擻惈偱愢柧偑偮偄偨丅

 

184)lavelli ACJ, Jager KJ, de Groot MH, et al. Travel time from home to hospital and adverse perinatal outocomes in women at term in the netherlands. BJOG 2011;118:457-465.

丒僆儔儞僟偱偺帺戭偲嶻壢偲偺幵偱偺堏摦帪娫偲怴惗帣偺廃嶻婜偺梊屻偲偺娭學丅

丒廃嶻婜丒怴惗帣巰朣棪偼1000弌惗偁偨傝偑1.5丄忈奞偑6.0

丒帺戭偼梄曋斣崋偱暘椶丄嶻壢偼慡崙偱99堛椕婡娭丅

丒扨戀偺751,926暘曍傪夝愅懳徾丅

ArcGIS偵傛傞僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱堏摦帪娫傪應掕丅0-14暘丄15-19暘丄20暘埲忋偵暘椶丅

丒堏摦帪娫偺拞墰抣偼13暘丄摴楬丂嫍棧偺拞墰抣偼7.0km

丒堏摦帪娫偑20暘傪挻偊傞偲廃嶻婜偺巰朣傗傾僾僈乕僗僐傾4揰枹枮傗NICU擖堾偺儕僗僋偑忋徃丅

 

185)Nesbitt TS, Connell FA, Hart LG, et al. Access to obstetric care in rural areas: effect on birth outcomes. Am J Public Health 1990;80:814-818.

丒儚僔儞僩儞廈偺揷幧偺昦堾33巤愝偱偺戅堾僨乕僞偺夝愅丅

丒揷幧偺昦堾偲偼丄50彴枹枮丄3枩恖埲忋偺挰偐傜15儅僀儖埲忋棧傟偰偄傞偙偲丅丂

丒昦堾偺娗妽恖岥偼暯嬒10592恖丄暯嬒昦彴悢偼32彴丅

丒棳弌彮側偄偲偼3暘偺2埲忋偺摉抧偱弌嶻丄棳弌懡偄偲偼3暘偺1枹枮偑摉抧偱弌嶻偺昦堾傑偨偼偦偺抧堟傪巜偡丅

丒弌惗摉偨傝偺嶻壢僒乕價僗偺掅偄巗挰懞偱偼丄巗挰懞奜偱弌惗偡傞斾棪偑崅偄丅

丒巗挰懞奜偱偺弌惗偱偼丄暘曍帪偺崌暪徢傗枹弉帣偑崅偔丄怴惗帣帯椕偺僐僗僩傕崅偄丅

 

186)Kornelsen J, Grzybowski S. The cost of separation: the birth experiences of women in isolated and remote communities in British Columbia. Can Women Studies J 2005;24:75-80.乮僫儔僥傿僽乯

丒僇僫僟偺僽儕僥傿僢僔儏僐儘儞價傾偱偺嶻壢僒乕價僗偺婰弎丅

30擭埲忋弌嶻偺巟墖偺側偄3偮偺傊偒抧偺懞偺夝愅丅

丒傾儃儕僕僯偺2擭埲撪偺弌嶻偟偨7恖偺廧柉偵柺愙挷嵏丅

30擭埲忋嶻壢僒乕價僗偑側偔丄弌嶻慜偵弌嶻抧傊偺揮嫃僔僗僥儉偑偁偭偰傕丄傊偒抧偱偼廧柉偼僗僩儗僗傪姶偠傞偟丄斃憲愭偱偺僐僗僩傕栤戣偲側偭偰偄傞丅

 

187)salisbury C, Trivella M, Bruster S. Demand for and supply of out of hours care from general practitioners in England and Scotland: observational study based on routinely collected data. BMJ 2000;320:618-621.

丒僀僊儕僗偺僀儞僌儔儞僪偲僗僐僢僩儔儞僪偱偺帪娫奜(暯擔19帪偐傜7帪丄廡枛偼搚梛偺12帪埲崀乯偺懳墳偺夝愅丅

20偺嫤摨慻崌乮僐乕儁儔僥傿僽乯899657僐乕儖傪夝愅丅

1000恖偁偨傝159僐乕儖丅5嵨枹枮偼惉恖偺4攞丅帪娫懷偼0帪埲慜偑懡偄丅

丅昻崲抧堟偺廧柉偼偦傟埲奜偺70%憹偟偺僐乕儖丅

丒嫃廧抧偼梄曋斣崋偱乮嫍棧傗堏摦帪娫偺徻嵶偼側偄丄嫤摨慻崌傊偺僀儞僞儞價儏乕偲偁傞偑乯丅

丒僐乕儖傪偡傞廧柉偼丄60%30暘寳撪丄83%1帪娫寳撪偺廧柉丅

丒僐乕儖偱擖堾偲側傞斾棪偼5.5%丅擖堾棪偼廡枛偺4%偐傜2帪偐傜6帪偺9%傑偱奐偒偁傝丅

 

188)Trunkey DD. Trauma Sci Am 1983;249(2):20-27.乮憤愢乯

60暘偺墿嬥儖乕儖偵偮偄偰傕尵媦丅儀僩僫儉愴憟偱偼丄庴彎屻庤弍傑偱偺帪娫傪65暘偵偟偨傜丄巰朣棪偑1.7%傑偱壓偘傜傟偨偙偲傪堷梡丅

丒帠屘巰偵偼丄戞1偺僺乕僋乮尰応偱偺巰朣乯丄戞2偺僺乕僋乮帠屘屻悢帪娫偱偺巰朣乯丄戞3偺僺乕僋乮悢擔偐傜悢廡偺巰朣乯偑偁傞丅

丒媬柦偼庡偵戞2偺僺乕僋傪懳徾丅

 

189)Parker DL. Hospital accessibility and infant death risk. Arch Dos Child 2004;89:232-234.

丒僀僊儕僗偺僇儞僽儕傾偵偍偗傞弌惗抧偲昦堾傑偱偺嫍棧偲擕帣巰朣棪偲偺斾妑乮徻嵶晄柧乯

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱堏摦帪娫傪0-17暘丄17-35暘丄35暘挻乮拞墰抣12暘丄嵟戝抣70暘乯偵暘椶丅

丒堏摦帪娫偺挿抁偑巰朣棪偵塭嬁傪梌偊側偄丅

 

190)Katz D, Baptista J, Azen SP, et al. Obtaining confidence intervals for the risk ratio in cohort studies. Biometrics 1978;34:469-474.

丒憡懳婋尟搙R=A/(A+C)/B(B+D)偵偍偗傞昗弨曃嵎偑

SE(logeR)=[1/A-1/(A+C)+1/B-1/(B+D)]偱偁傞偙偲傪帵偟偰偄傞偑丄偦偺崻嫆偵偮偄偰偼怗傟偰偄側偄丅

 

191)Woolf B.On estimating the relation between blood group and disease. Ann Hum Genet 1955;19(4):251-253.

丒僆僢僤偵偍偗傞暘嶶傪帵偡偑丄徻嵶偺崻嫆偼側偄丅

 

192)栰揷棿栫丄徏杮惏庽丄敽惓奀丄懠丅抧堟堛椕峔憐偺悇恑偵帒偡傞媫惈婜巜昗偺奐敪丅丂峔惉偺巜昗丂2017;64(4):9-14.

丒昦彴婡擻曬崘偐傜媫惈婜偺巜昗傪堷偒弌偟丄奺媫惈婜昦堾偺媫惈婜巜昗傪寁嶼偡傞帋傒丅

 

193)攱揷尗巌丅岎捠帪偺敪惗抧揰偐傜戞嶰師媬媫堛椕婡娭傑偱偺嫍棧偲惗奤掱搙偺娭學暘愅丅帺摦幵媄弍夛2015擭弔婫戝夛妛弍島墘夛島墘梊峞廤, S130

丒愮梩導偺廳徢偍傛傃巰朣帠椺偺岎捠帠屘偲帠屘尰応偐傜3師堛椕婡娭傑偱偺僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧傗帪娫偵傛傞巰朣棪乮巰朣乛巰朣亄廳徢乯偺斾棪偺夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偑挿偔側傞偲巰朣棪偼崅偔側傞丅

 

194) Apparicio P, Gelb J, Dube AS et al. The approaches to measuring the potential spatial access to urban health services revisited: distance types and aggregation-error issues. Int J Health Geogr 2017:16:32. Doi 10.1186/s12942-017-0105-9.

丒儌儞僩儕僆乕儖偱偺堛椕婡娭偲崙惃挷嵏偺嬫夋偲偺捈慄嫍棧丄儅儞僴僢僞儞嫍棧丄嵟抁宱楬乮搆曕丄帺揮幵丄帺摦幵丄岞嫟岎捠婡娭乯偱偺斾妑丅

丒戝偒側嵎堎偼側偄偑丄偽傜偮偒偼戝偒偄丅

 

195) Hung P, Hunning-Smith C, Caey M, et al. Access to obstetric services in rural counties still declining, with 9 percent losing services, 2004-14. Health Affairs 2017;9:1663-1671.

丒傾儊儕僇偺揷幧乮5枩恖枹枮偺孲乯乯偱偺嶻壢僒乕價僗偺桳柍傪2004-14擭偵偐偗偰娤嶡丅

丒帒椏偼傾儊儕僇堛巘夛偺僒乕儀僀丅

9%偺揷幧偱嶻壢僒乕價僗偑側偔側傝丄45亾偱偼傕偲傕偲嶻壢僒乕價僗偑側偐偭偨丅

丒崟恖偑懡偄孲丄廂擖彮側偄孲丄儊僨傿働僀僪偺壛擖帒奿偑尩偟偄孲偱嶻壢僒乕價僗偺採嫙偑彮側偐偭偨丅

 

196) Kanuganti S, Sarkar AK, Singh AP. Evaluation of access to health care in rural areas using enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. J Transport Geogr 2016;56:45-52.

丒俀僗僥僢僾僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩傾儕傾朄傪摓払寳偱夝愅偟丄偝傜偵嫍棧偵傛傞曵夡岠壥傪壛枴丅

丒僀儞僪偱偺堦晹偺抧堟偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

 

197) Bell S, Wilson K, Bissonnettee L, et al. Access to primary health care: does neighbourhood of residence matter? Ann Assoc Am Geogr 2013;103(1):85-105.

丒僇僫僟偺Mississauga巗偱偺僱乕僶乕僼僢僪偲偄偆僙儞僒僗僩儔僋僩傛傝傕戝偒偄抧嬫偲僙儞僒僗僩儔僋僩偱偺俀SFCA朄偺斾妑丅

丒僱乕僶乕僼僢僪偑揔愗側堛椕傾僋僙僗傪夝愅偱偒傞丅

丒榖偡尵岅偑彮悢偺柉懓傗壠掚堛傪寛傔偰偄側偍恖偼堛椕傊偺傾僋僙僗偑埆偔側傞丅

 

198) Cao Y, Stewart K, Kalil R. Geographic patterns of end-stage renal disease and kidney transplants in the Medwestern United States. Appl Geogr 2016;71:133-143.

丒傾儊儕僇拞惣晹偺11廈偺恡堏怉堛椕婡娭傊偺孲偛偲偺奼戝2僗僥僢僾僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄乮寳堟撪恖岥偵廳傒偯偗傪偟偰偄傞丄傑偨丄摓払寳夝愅乯偱偺枬惈恡晄慡姵幰悢偲偺娭楢斾妑丄

丒恡堏怉僙儞僞乕傊偺傾僋僙僗側偄偲丄枬惈恡晄慡姵幰偼憹壛丅

 

199) Rocha CM, Kruger E, McGuire S, et al. Role of public transport in accessibility to emergency dental care in Melbourne, Australia. Aust J Primary Health 2015;21(2):227-232.

丒僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偺帟壢媬媫傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

丒儊儖儃儖儞偺帟壢媬媫奜棃傊偺庴恌姵幰偺廧強傪夝愅偟丄95%偺姵幰偑50倠倣寳撪丅

丒岞嫟岎捠婡娭乮僶僗掆乯傊偺傾僋僙僗偑400倣埲撪偺姵幰斾棪偑80%

丒偟偐偟丄昿斏偵棃傞僶僗掆傑偱偺傾僋僙僗偑400倣埲撪偺姵幰斾棪偼65亾丅

 

200) Wang X, Pan J. Assessing the disparity in spatial access to ospital care in ethnic minority region in Sichuan Province, China. BMC Health Services Research 2016;16(1):399.

丒拞崙巐愳徣偺彮悢柉懓偲娍柉懓偲偺昦堾傾僋僙僗偺斾妑丅

丒奼戝俀抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄傪巊偄丄摓払寳夝愅偱0-10暘偺寳堟偵0.94510-30暘偵0.40330-60暘偵0.010偺廳傒傪偮偗偰夝愅丅

丒恖岥偼奺孲偺恖岥枾搙傪巊偄丄2僉儘偐偗傞2僉儘偺抧堟偑偡傋偰奺孲偺恖岥枾搙偲偟偰夝愅丅

丒彮悢柉懓偱偼丄娍柉懓偵斾傋偰昦堾傊偺傾僋僙僗偑埆偄丅

 

201) Pan J, Liu H, Wang X, et al. Assessing the spatial accessibility of hospital care in Sichuan Province, China. Geospatial Health 2015;10(2):384.

丒拞崙巐愳徣偱偺堛椕婡娭傾僋僙僗偲孲偛偲偺堛巘悢傗堛椕婡娭悢偲偺憡娭傪夝愅丅

丒奼戝俀抜奒僼儘乕僥傿儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾朄傪巊偄丄摓払寳夝愅偱0-10暘偺寳堟偵0.94510-30暘偵0.40330-60暘偵0.010偺廳傒傪偮偗偰夝愅丅

丒恖岥偼奺孲偺恖岥枾搙傪巊偄丄2僉儘偐偗傞2僉儘偺抧堟偑偡傋偰奺孲偺恖岥枾搙偲偟偰夝愅丅

丒憡娭偼暺抧偱偼15%偔傜偄偺偢傟傪惗偠傞丅

 

202) Cutumisu N, Spence J. Sport field as potential catalysts for physical activity in the neighbourhood. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2012;9:294-314.

丒僇僫僟偺僄僪儌儞僩儞巗偺195偺僱乕僶乕僼僢僩乮抧嬫乯偺奼戝2抜奒僼儘乕僥傿僀儞僌僉儍僢僠儊儞僩朄偱偺岞墍傊偺搆曕偱偺傾僋僙僗乮僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅乯偲塣摦検偲偺夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偵傛傞尭悐偼丄晧偺巜悢娭悢傪梡偄丄1500儊乕僩儖偱0.1攞偵側傞傛偆愝掕丅

丒偙傟偵傛傝丄500m枹枮傪侾丄5001000m0.46攞丄1000-1500m0.22攞偱廳傒偯偗丅乮崻嫆偼帵偝傟偢丄1500m0.1攞偲側傞傛偆偵晧偺巜悢娭悢傪慻傫偩偲偟偐側偄乯

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧乮搆曕乯偲塣摦検偲偺娭楢側偟丅

 

203) McGrail MR. Spatial accessibility of primary health care utilizing the two step floating catchment area method: an assessment of recent improvements. Int J Health Geogr 2012;11(1):1.

丒崑價僋僩儕傾廈偺GP傊偺傾僋僙僗傪enhanced2SFCA朄偱夝愅丅

丒堏摦帪娫偱夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偵傛傞decay傪偝傑偞傑側幃偱夝愅偟丄傕偲傕偲偺decay偺側偄俀SFCA朄偲斾妑丅

丒偨偟偐偵丄E2SFCA朄偑庡棳偵側偭偰偄傞偑丄幚嵺偺庴恌峴摦偲偺偡傝崌傢偣偼側偄丅

 

204) Crooks VA, Schuurman N. Interpreting the results of a modified gravity model: examining access to primary health care physicians in five Canadian provinces and territories. BMMC Health Serv Res 2012;12(1):230.

丒僇僫僟偺5廈偍傛傃椞搚偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗傪廳椡儌僨儖偱夝愅丅

2帪娫埲撪偺摴楬偱偺摓払寳傪夝愅丅

丒嫃廧抧偼僙儞僒僗僽儘僢僋丅

丒堛巘偼僇僫僟堛巘夛偺僨乕僞偱壠掚堛偲堦斒堛傪巊梡丅

丒摴楬僨乕偱偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

丒堏摦帪娫偵敽偆僀儞僺乕僟儞僗乮廀梫傊偺媡悢乯偼10暘埲壓偱偼侾丄10偐傜120暘偱偼乮暘/10乯丄120暘挻偱偼丄柍尷戝丅偟偐偟丄幚嵺偺昦堾傊偺庴恌孹岦偲偺撍崌偼側偄丅

OD僐僗僩儅僩儕僢僋僗僣乕儖傪巊梡偟偰夝愅丅

丒撿杒奿嵎乮撿偺傎偆偑傾僋僙僗傛偄乯丄搒巗晹偱廳椡儌僨儖偑柧傜偐偱偁傞丅

 

205) Salonen M, Toivonen T. Modeling travel time in urban networks: comparable measures for private car and public transport. J Transp Geogr 2013;31:143亂廳梫亃

丒僼傿儞儔儞僪丒僿儖僔儞僉偱偺帺壠梡幵偲岞嫟岎捠婡娭偲偺僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

250儊乕僩儖巐曽偺僌儕僢僪偲俆俋偺岞嫟恾彂娰偲偺嵟抁嫍棧丄捈慄嫍棧摍偺憡娭傪尒傞丅

丒岞嫟岎捠婡娭偲帺壠梡幵偱偺摴楬嫍棧丄強梫帪娫丄捈慄嫍棧偲偼嫮偄憡娭丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偼摴楬嫍棧傛傝傕暯嬒30%抁偄丅

206) Eberhart MG, Share AM, Shapaner M, et al. Comparison of geographic methods to assess travel patterns of persoms diagnosed with HIV in Philadelphia: how close is close enough? J Biomed Inform 2015;53:93-99.

丒僼傿儔僨儖僼傿傾偺HIV姵幰1789恖偺堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

丒捈慄嫍棧丄摴楬嫍棧丄帺壠梡幵偱偺堏摦帪娫丄岞嫟岎捠婡娭偱偺堏摦帪娫傪斾妑丅

丒捈慄嫍棧傛傝傕塣揮嫍棧偼桳堄偵挿偄丅

丒抧嬫偱偼丄杒搶晹偑挿偄丅

 

207) Djurhuus S, Hansen HS, Aadahl M, et al. Individual public transportation accessibility is positively associated with self-reported active commuting. Front Public Health 2014;2:240.

丒僨儞儅乕僋庱搒寳偱偺丄28928恖偺岞嫟岎捠婡娭偺掆棷強傑偱偺帺戭偐傜偺嫍棧偲塣摦検偲偺夝愅丅偙傟傑偱丄岞嫟岎捠婡娭偺掆棷強偵嬤偄偲丄塣摦検傕懡偄乮帺壠梡幵傪巊傢側偄偲偄偆偙偲偐丠乯偲偺曬崘偁傝丅

丒塣摦偺巜昗偼帺屓怽崘偱偺塣摦帪娫丅

丒掆棷強傑偱偺嫍棧偼OD儅僩儕僢僋僗乮僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅乯丅

丒掆棷強偵嬤偄偲塣摦検懡偄丅

 

208) Dewulf B, Neutens T, De Weerdt Y, at al. Accessibility to primary health care in Beiguim: an evaluation of policies awarding financial assiss\tance in shortage areas. BMC Family Pract 2013;14:1

丒儀儖僊乕慡搚偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗乮僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧乯傪丄恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢丄嵟婑堛巘傑偱偺嫍棧丄僙儞僒僗僩儔僋僩偐傜堦掕嫍棧寳偺堛巘憤悢丄俀SFCA朄丄E2SFCA朄摍偱斾妑丅

丒廧柉扨埵偼丄導丄堛巘嬫丄僙儞僒僗僩儔僋僩偱夝愅丅

E2SFCA朄偲懠偺俀SFCA朄偲偼嫮偄憡娭丅

E2SFCA朄偱偺廳晅偗偼丄1噏枹枮偑侾丄1偐傜2噏偑0.82偐傜5噏偑0.555偐傜10噏偑0.15

E2SFCA朄偑嵟傕奣擮偲偰揔愗偲尵媦偟偰偄傞丅

 

209) Khan AA. An integrated approach to measuring potential spatial access to health care services. Socio-econ Plann Sci 1992;26(4):275-287.乮廳椡儌僨儖偺徯夘乯

丒傾僋僙僗偵偼丄乽愽嵼揑乿偲乽尰幚揑乿側2偮偑偁傞丅

丒傑偨丄傾僋僙僗偵偼乽抧棟揑乿側傕偺偲丄乽幮夛揑乿側傕偺偑偁傞丅

Availability乮悢偺傒偱抧棟揑側場巕偑柍帇偝傟傞乯偺巜昗偲偟偰偼丄乽恖岥堛巘悢斾乿側偳偑偁傞丅偦偺懠丄乽FTE堛巘/儕僗僋恖岥乿側偳傕偁傞丅

Accessibility乮抧棟揑側場巕偑庡懱乯偺巜昗偲偟偰偼丄堛椕婡娭傊偺暯嬒嫍棧側偳偑偁傝丄distance-decay儌僨儖丄廳椡儌僨儖摍偑偁傞丅

丒忋婰偺曽朄傪摑崌偟偰丄堛椕帒尮偲恖岥偺斾傪嫍棧偺椵忔偱妱傞幃傪採彞乮廳椡儌僨儖乯丅偙傟偵傛傝丄愽嵼揑側堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗傪寁應偡傞丅

 

210) Ngui AN, Apparicio P. Optimizing the two-step floating catchment area method for measuring spatial accessibility to medical clinics in Montreal. BMC Health Serv Res 2011;11(1):1

丒儌儞僩儕僆乕儖偺恌椕強傊偺傾僋僙僗傪僆儕僕僫儖偺俀SFCA朄偲堛巘悢偍傛傃姵幰偺擭楊偱廳傒偯偗偟偨俀SFCA朄偱斾妑丅

236恌椕強偵1344恖偺堛巘偑偄傞丅

丒廧柉偼190枩恖偱483暯曽僉儘丄522偺僙儞僒僗僩儔僋僩丅

丒摴楬偱偺嫍棧寳偼500m1噏丄2噏丄3噏丅

2偮偺曽朄偱摑寁妛揑側嵎偑弌傞丅

丒嫍棧偼椉幰偲傕摴楬僨乕僞傪梡偄偰偄傞丅

 

211) Guagliardo MF. Spatial accessibility of primary care: concepts, methods and challenges. Int J Health Geogr 2004;3(1):1.乮憤愢乯

丒僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗偵娭偡傞GIS偺敪揥偺憤愢丅摿偵暷崙拞怱丅

丒傾僋僙僗偵偼丄乽愽嵼揑乿偲乽尰幚揑乿側傕偺偑偁傞丅

AccessibilityTravel impedance.

Accessibility偺寁應曽朄偲偟偰丄恖岥摉偨傝偺堛巘悢丄嵟婑堛椕婡娭傊偺嫍棧乽丄堛椕婡娭傊偺暯嬒嫍棧丄廳椡儌僨儖偑偁傞丅

丒嵟婑堛椕婡娭傑偱偺嫍棧偼揷幧偱偼桳岠偩偑丄搒巗晹偱偼姶搙埆偄丅

丒怴偟偄庤朄偲偟偰丄俀SFCA朄偑弌偰偒偨丅偟偐偟丄廃曈晹偱偼嫬奅偺撪晹偱偼堛椕帒尮枾搙偑拞怱偲摨偠抣傪帵偟偰丄嫬奅偺奜偱偼僛儘偲撍慠抣偑曄傢傞寚揰偑偁傞丅

丒僈僂僗僇乕僱儖朄偱偼丄嫍棧偵傛傞尭悐傪惓婯嬋慄偱嬤帡偡傞丅

 

212) Hu R, Dong S, Zhao Y, et al. Assessing potential spatical accessibility of health services in rural China: a case study of Donghai county. Int J Equity Health 2013;12(1):35.

丒拞崙峕慼徣搶奀導偺堛椕傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺嵟抁帪娫偱昦堾偲懞偲偺僀儞僺乕僟儞僗寁應丅

E2SFCA朄傪棙梡丅0偐傜10暘丄10偐傜20暘丄20偐傜30暘偺塣揮帪娫偵暘偗偰丄晎偺巜悢娭悢偱廳傒偯偗丅廳傒偼丄偦傟偧傟侾丄0.510.07傑偨偼侾丄0.610.14傪巊梡丅

69%偺懞偑搶奀導偺暯嬒枹枮偱丄79%偺懞偑峕慼徣偺暯嬒枹枮丅

ArcGIS9.3偲僱僢僩儚乕僋僄僋僗僥儞僔儑儞偱OD儅僩儕僋僗巊梡丅

 

213) Gao F, Kihai W, Le Meur N, et al. Assessment of the spatial accessibility to heath professionals at French census block level.  Int J Equity Health 2016;15:125.

丒僼儔儞僗偺僲乕儖導乮恖岥栺260枩恖乯偵偍偄偰崙惃挷嵏嬫夋儗儀儖偱偺堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

乮偦傟傑偱偺夝愅偼巗挰懞偐傜偺傾僋僙僗偱偡傋偰偑拞怱晹偵廤崌偝偣傜傟偰偄偨乯

E2SFCA朄傪巊梡丄帺摦幵偱偺塣揮帪娫乮僌乕僌儖儅僢僾傪巊梡乯傪梡偄傞丅

丒廳傒偯偗偼丄5暘枹枮偼侾丄15暘挻偼侽丄俆偐傜15暘偼乮15-d乯仏e^1.5/(15-5)

3587恖偺堛巘偍傛傃彆嶻巘傊偺傾僋僙僗丅

 

214) Ni J, Wang J, Rui Y, et al. An enhanced teo-step floating catchment area method for measuring spatial accessibility to residential care facilities in Nanjing. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015;12:14490-14504.乮庡偵奣擮偺婰弎乯

丒拞崙撿嫗巗偺榁恖儂乕儉傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

E2SFCA朄偵僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僄儕傾傪戝彫曄偊偨曽朄偱enhanced variable 2SFCA

朄偲偟偰柤偯偗偰偄傞丅

丒夝愅懳徾撪偵儂乕儉偑275巤愝丄儀僢僪偑37337

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱丄堦斒揑側懍搙偼崅懍60km/h丄庡梫摴50km/h丄擇媺摴楬40km/h丄偦偺懠偺摴楬偑30km/h

丒僉儍僢僠儊儞僩偼恖岥摉偨傝偺廂梕恖堳偱峀偘偨傝丄嫹傔偨傝丅

丒嫍棧偱偺廳傒偯偗偼惓婯嬋慄偱丄15暘枹枮偑侾丄15偐傜30暘偑0.4230偐傜45暘偑0.03丅乮偙傟偼丄偦傟偧傟偺嬫娫傪SD偲偟偰嬤帡偐丠乯

 

215)Victoor A, Rademakers J, Reitsma-van Rooijen M, st al. The effect of the proximity of patients乫 nearest alternative hospital on their intention to search for information on hospital quality. J Health Serv Res Policy 2014;19(1):4-11.

丒僆儔儞僟偱2000恖偵嵟婑傝偺昦堾埲奜偵懠偺昦堾傪扵偡偲偡傟偽斍僉儘埲撪偐偲傾儞働乕僩丅

1僉儘憹偊傞偲4%懠偺昦堾傪扵偡孹岦尭傞丅

丒崅楊幰丄掅妛楌幰偑扵偡孹岦掅偔丄庒擭幰丄崅妛楌幰偱扵偡孹岦崅偄丅

 

216) Siegel M, Koller D, Vogt V, et al. Developing a composite index of special accessibility across different health care sectors: A German example. Health Policy 2016;120:205-212.

丒僪僀僣偱偺奜棃丒擖堾傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

丒廳椡儌僨儖傪壛偊偨俤俀俽俥俠俙朄乮尭悐偼嫍棧偺儅僀僫僗1.5忔佮廳椡儌僨儖乯丅

丒恌椕壢偺庬椶偵傛偭偰傕廳傒偯偗丅

丒奨嬫儗儀儖偺僨乕僞巊梡丄嫍棧偺寁應曽朄偺尵媦側偟丅      

丒搒巗晹偵斾傋偰揷幧偱偼堛椕傾僋僙僗埆偄丅

 

217) Langford M, Higgs G, Fry R. Multi-modal two-step floating catchment area analysis of primary health care accessibility. Health Place 2016;38:70-81.

丒僀僊儕僗撿僂僃乕儖僘偵偍偗傞丄僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗傪俀俽俥俠俙朄偱夝愅丅

丒俤俀俽俥俠俙朄偱偼丄廳傒傪d0枹枮偺嫍棧偱偼(d0-dki)/do偲偟丄d0傛傝嫍棧偑挿偄偲0偲偟偰偄傞丅15暘傪d0偲偟偰鑷抣偲偟偰夝愅偟偰偄傞丅

ArcGIS僱僢僩儚乕僋僄僋僗僥儞僔儑儞巊梡丅

丒偟偐偟丄岎捠庤抜傪僶僗偲帺壠梡幵偱斾妑丅

丒僶僗偱偼傾僋僙僗埆偄丅

 

218) Mao L, Nekorchuk. Measuring spatial accessibility to healthcare for populations with multiple transportation mides. Health Place 2013;24:115-122.

丒俀SFCA朄乮嫍棧偵傛傞曵夡側偟偺僆儕僕僫儖乯偵岎捠庤抜傪偄偔偮偐壛偊偨夝愅丅

丒條乆側岎捠庤抜傪峫椂偟偨夝愅偱尰幚偵嬤偔側傞丅

丒僼儘儕僟傪夝愅抧堟偲偡傞丅346昦堾丄摴楬栐傪巊梡丄11442偺僙儞僒僗僽儘僢僋乮僙儞僩儘僀僪巊梡乯丅

丒岎捠庤抜偼丄傑偢幵偺偁傞側偟丅側偄応崌偼帪懍10儅僀儖偺僶僗偲壖掕丅

丒僇僢僩僆僼偼30暘偲偟偨乮暯嬒偺堏摦帪娫偑22.8暘偱3巐暘埵偑30暘枹枮偵偰乯

丒帪懍偼崅懍70km丄廈摴偑60km側偳條乆側帪懍傪寁嶼丅

丒帺摦幵偲僶僗傪慻傒崌傢偣偨傛傝傕丄帺摦幵偩偗偱偺俀SFCA朄偱偼悇寁抣偑崅偔弌傞丅

 

219) Wan N, Zhan FB, Zou B, et al. A relative spatial access assessment approach for analyzing potential spatial access to colorectal canser services in Texas. Appl geogr 2012;32(2):291-299.

丒僥僉僒僗廈偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛丄戝挵偑傫専恌巤愝丄偑傫愱栧埾傊偺傾僋僙僗傪E2SFCA朄丄摴楬偱偺嵟抁嫍棧朄偵偱夝愅丅

丅堛椕婡娭偺強嵼抧偲廧柉偺僙儞僒僗僩儔僋僩偺僙儞僩儘僀僪偱夝愅丅

丒嫍棧偵傛傞尭悐偼惓婯暘晍傪揔梡偟偰丄僝乕儞傪係偮偵暘偗丄僝乕儞侾偼侾慜屻丄俀偼0.7慜屻丄俁偼0.4慜屻丄係偼0.05慜屻乮掕悢儀乕僞偺庢傝曽偱庒姳堎側傞乯傪梡偄偰偄傞丅

丒僝乕儞偛偲偺堏摦帪娫偺暯嬒偼俆丄侾俆丄俀俆丄45暘偱偁傞丅

丒忋婰偺堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偼搒巗晹偲傊偒抧偱戝偒側嵎偑偁傞丅

 

220) Wang F. Measument, optimization, and impact of health care accessibility: A methological review. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 2012;102(5):1104-1112.乮憤愢乯

丒廳椡儌僨儖偱嫙媼偲廀梫偺僶儔儞僗傪尒偰偄傞乮偟偐偟丄嬻娫揑側傕偺偼側偄乯

丒嬻娫揑側傕偺偼丄俀SFCA朄偑偁傞丅偟偐偟丄堛巘偑偄傞偐偄側偄偐偺2慖戰偱偁傝丄岆嵎偑懡偄丅

丒偦偙偱丄嫍棧偵傛傞尭悐傪惓婯暘晍側偳偱嬤帡偡傞E2SFCA朄偑弌尰偟偨丅

 

221) Song P,Zhu Y, Mao X, et al. Assessing spatial accessibility to maternity units in Schenzen, China. PLoS ONE 2013;8(7):e70227.

丒怺圳偵偍偗傞暘曍巤愝傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅廧柉偺嫃廧抧偼奺嬫偺僙儞僩儘僀僪偱戙梡丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偱偺俀SFCA朄乮enhanced偱偼側偄乯

丒鑷抣偼丄3040km/h偲偟偨丅偮傑傝丄捈慄嫍棧偱20噏偲側傞丅

 

222) Hyndman KCG, Holman DAJ, Pritchard DA. The influence of attractiveness factors and distance to general practice surgeries by level of social disadvantage and global access in Perth, Western Australia. Soc Sci Med 2003;56:387-403.

丒僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偺僷乕僗偱偺GP傊偺庴恌孹岦偺棟桼偵娭偡傞暦偒庢傝挷嵏丅

1044恖懳徾偱抧堟偺GP466恖丅

丒傾僋僙僗偺埆偝偼丄廳椡儌僨儖偱夝愅乮ArcINFO乯丅

丒嫍棧偺拞墰抣偼丄傾僋僙僗椙偄偲偙傠偱4.8噏丄埆偄偲偙傠偱9.4噏丅

丒傾僋僙僗偺埆偄抧堟偼椙偄抧堟偵斾傋偰捈嬤偺GP偵偐偐傞斾棪偑崅偔丄懠偺GP偵偐偐傞斾棪偼掅偄丅偦偺斾棪偼昻偟偄恖偺曽偑崅偄丅

丒懠偺GP傪庴恌偡傞棟桼偼丄梊栺偑偟傗偡偄偙偲乮偡偖偵庴恌偱偒傞丄栻嬊偑嬤偄丄掕妟椏嬥丄搚梛擔偵恌椕偟偰偄傞側偳乯偑偁傞丅

GP偺寛掕梫場偲偟偰嬤偝偑戝偱偁傞丅丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂丂

 

223) Goodman DC, Mick SS, Bott D, et al. Primary care service areas: a new tool for the evaluation of primary care services. Health Ser Res 1999; 38: 287-309.

丒僾儔僀儅儕働傾偺恌椕寳偺夝愅丅

65嵨埲忋偺儊僨傿働傾偲僽儖乕僋儘僗僗儖乕僔乕儖僪偺壛擖幰懳徾丅

丒傾儊儕僇偺儊僨傿働僀僪偲儈僔僈儞偺僽儖乕僋儘僗僽儖乕僔乕儖僪偺僨乕僞傪巊梡丅

丒梄曋斣崋嬫偺廧柉偲僾儔僀儅儕働傾堛椕婡娭偺梄曋斣崋偲偺傾僋僙僗傪尒傞丅

丒抧棟揑偵侾俀俆俇暯曽儅僀儖傑偨偼俀侽儅僀儖偺敿宎偺墌傪恌椕寳偲掕媊偟偰偄傞丅

丒俀俁%偺恌椕寳偼侾偮偺梄曋斣崋嬫丄侾俈%偑俀丄侾俁%偑俁偺梄曋斣崋嬫丅係俈%偑係埲忋丅

6102偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾偺恌椕嬫偵暘偗傜傟丄恌椕寳恖岥偺拞墰抣偼17276恖乮1005恖乣1253240恖乯丅

 

224) Yang DH, Goerge R, Mullner R. Comaparing GIS-based methods of measuring spatial accessibility to heath services. J Med Syst 2006;30(1):23-32.

丒僀儕僲僀偺枬惈恡晄慡姵幰偺傾僋僙僗傪俀SFCA朄偲KD乮僇乕僱儖僨儞僔僥傿丗堛椕婡娭偐傜棧傟傞偵廬偄傾僋僙僗埆偔側傞傛偆側尭悐儌僨儖偱惓婯暘晍偑巊傢傟傞乯朄偱斾妑丅

丒僔僇僑偺44摟愅僙儞僞乕丄867摟愅僗僥乕僔儑儞丄3722摟愅姵幰懳徾丅

丒俀SFCA朄偱偼僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧偱30暘塣揮寳丄KD朄偱偼捈慄嫍棧偺20噏寳丄30m巐曽偺儊僢僔儏偱寁應丅

丒俀SFCA朄偺傎偆偑傾僋僙僗傛偝偦偆偵弌傞丅暘晍偑KD偱偼堛椕婡娭廃曈偺傒丄俀SFCA朄偱偼廃曈偵嫮偔弌傞丅

 

225) McGrail MR, Humphreys JS. Measuring spatial accessibility to primary care in rural areas: improving the effectiveness of the two-step floating catchment area method. Appl Geogr 2009;29:533-514.乮憤愢乯

丒俀SFCA朄偺寚揰傪巜揈丗寳堟偑偁傜偐偠傔寛傔傜傟偰偄傞偙偲丄嫍棧偵傛傞傾僋僙僗傊偺攝椂偑側偄偙偲丅

 

226) Fryer GE, Drisko J, Krugman RD, et al. Multi-method assessment of access to primary medical care in rural Colorado. J Rural Health 199;15(1):113-121.

丒僐儘儔僪偺揷幧乮52孲丄1317僽儘僢僋乯偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

丒捈慄嫍棧偱捈嬤偺堛椕婡娭傑偱偺嫍棧傪寁應丅ZIP僐乕僪傪巊梡丅

343恖偺GP偑偄偨丅606,050恖偺廧柉丅

3暘偺2偺廧柉偼5儅僀儖寳撪偵嫃廧丅99%GP傑偱30儅僀儖寳撪偵嫃廧丅

 

227) McGrail MR, Humphreys JS. A new index of access to primary care services in rural areas. Aust N Z J Public health 2009;33(5):418-423.

丒僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偺崙惃挷嵏偲堛巘搊榐傪梡偄偰揷幧偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗傪夝愅丅

丒俀SFCA朄偵嫍棧偵傛傞尭悐偲capping傪捛壛乮E2SFCA朄偐丠乯

1僉儘儊僢僔儏傪巊梡丅

10暘偐傜60暘偺嫍棧寳偱1傛傝彮側偄學悢傪偐偗偰嫍棧尭悐丅

index傪帵偡偩偗偱愨懳抣偼晄柧丅

 

228) Cervigni F, Suzuki Y, Ishii T, et al. Spatial accessibility to pediatric services. J Commun Health 2008;33:444-448.

丒愮梩導偺彫帣偲怴惗帣偺堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

丒俀SFCA朄傪巊梡丄嫍棧偼僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧丅

丒恖岥傗弌惗偼奺巗挰懞乮61乯偺僙儞僩儘僀僪傪巊梡丅

丒彫帣偺98.8%偑昦堾彫帣壢偐傜10噏寳撪丄惗嶻帣偍傛傃枹弉帣偺82.3%偑昦堾怴惗帣壢偐傜30噏寳撪偵嫃廧丅

 

229) Dong X, Ben-Akiva ME, Bowman JL, et al. Moving from trip-based measures of accessibility. Transp Res Part A: Policy Pract 2006;40:163-180.乮庡偵奣擮偺愢柧乯

丒帪娫懷傗岎捠庤抜摍偵傛傞堏摦嫍棧偺堘偄傪傾僋僙僗偵摫擖丅

丒廳椡儌僨儖偲帪娫懷偛偲偺堏摦偱偒傞嫍棧偵攝椂丠

丒傑偨丄Utility偺婔壗暯嬒傕弌偡丠

 

230) Schuurman N, Berube M, Crooks VA. Measuring potential spatial access to primary health care physicians using a modified gravity model. Can Deogr 2010;54(1):29-45.

丒僇僫僟偺僲僶僗僐僠傾偱偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾傊偺傾僋僙僗傪廳椡儌僨儖傪夵椙偟偨KD朄偱夝愅丅KD偺嫍棧偵傛傞尭悐偼惓婯暘晍偱嬤帡丅

丒僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱偺堏摦帪娫偱夝愅乮2帪娫傪僇僢僩僆僼偱10暘偐傜120暘偱偼嫍棧偵傛傝尭悐乯丅

丒僀儞僺乕僟儞僗乮堏摦帪娫偺媡悢乯偺廳傒偯偗偼丄10暘埲壓偱侾丄10偐傜120暘偱偼t/10120暘埲忋偱偼柍尷戝丅

丒廧柉偵偮偄偰偼僽儘僢僋僙儞僩儘僀僪傪巊梡丅

 

231) Radke J, Mu L. Spatial decompositions, medeling and mapping service regions to predict access to social programs. Geogr Inform Sci 2000;6(2):105-112.

丒摓払寳偺夝愅偺椺帵丅乮奣擮偺採帵偺傒乯

丒栚揑偼暺抧偱偺幮夛僒乕價僗傊偺傾僋僙僗偺巜昗偺採帵丅

丒儌僨儖偺採帵偱償僃儘僲僀恾偺採帵側偳丅

丒僒乕價僗椞堟偺僶僢僼傽乕傪60儅僀儖偲偟偰夝愅偡傞椺傪採帵丅

 

232) McGrail MR, Humphreys JS. Measuring spatial accessibility to primary health care services: utilizing dynamic catchment sizes. Appl Geogr 2014;54:182-188.

丒僆乕僗僩儔儕傾偺GP傊偺傾僋僙僗偵娭偟偰搒巗晹偐傜暺抧偵偐偗偰5偮偺僉儍僢僠儊儞僩僒僀僘乮摓払帪娫乯傪愝掕偟俀SFCA朄傪幚巤乮嫍棧偺尭悐偵娭偡傞徻嵶偺婰嵹側偟乯丅

 

233) Luo W, Whippo T. Variable catchment sizes for the two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method. Health Place 2012;18:789-795.

丒婎慴恖岥偍傛傃恖岥堛巘斾偑偁傞堦掕偺抣偵側傞傑偱恌椕寳傪峀偘偰E2SFCA朄傪幚巤丅

丒僀儕僲僀廈偺僾儔僀儅儕働傾偵娭偟偰丅

丒婎慴恖岥偼俆侽枩丄恖岥堛巘斾偼侾丗俁俆侽侽偲側傞傑偱寳堟傪峀偘偰E2SFCA朄傪幚巤丅

丒嫍棧偵傛傞尭悐偼丄摓払帪娫傪俁暘偟偰丄嬤偄傎偆偐傜侾丄侽丏係俁丄侽丏侽俁偺廳傒偯偗

 

234) 摗揷婱巕傜丅慡崙寬峃曐尟嫤夛暉壀巟晹偺壛擖幰傪懳徾偲偟偨嫊寣惈怱幘姵偵偍偗傞擇師堛椕寳偺愝掕偵娭偡傞尋媶丅擔杮堛椕丒昦堾娗棟妛夛嶨帍丂2017; 54(4):5-13.

丒奺巗挰懞偺栶強強嵼抧偲堛椕婡娭偲偺嫍棧偱堏摦嫍棧傪寁嶼丅

13偺暉壀偺擇師堛椕寳偺棳擖丒棳弌傪夝愅丅

丒岎棳棪傪1.5傪栚埨偵暘偗傞偲嫊寣惈幘姵偱偼4堛椕寳偲側偭偨丅

 

235)丂怷揷嫥弐傎偐丅擔杮偺庡梫搒巗偵偍偗傞捈慄嫍棧偲摴楬嫍棧偲偺斾偵娭悢r幚徹揑尋媶丅GIS亅棟榑偲墳梡丂2014;22(1):1-7.

20枩恖埲忋偺庡梫搒巗偡傋偰偵偍偗傞1僉儘儊僢僔儏娫偺捈慄嫍棧偲摴楬嫍棧偺斾棪偺寁嶼丅

丒暯嬒偼1.3035丄嵟彫偼堦媨巗偺1.1260丄嵟戝偼惷壀巗偺1.9235

 

236)Tonda T, Sato K, Otani K et al. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data. Radiat Environ Biophys 2012:51:133-141.

丒峀搰偺旐敋幰偺偑傫偱偺巰朣棪偺捛愓傪GIS偱夝愅丅

丒巰朣棪偺忋徃偑敋怱抧傪拞怱偲偡傞惓墌偱偼側偔丄崟偄塉摍偺塭嬁偵傛傞晽偺曽岦偑娭梌丅

 

237) Morrison D, Alexander D, Fisk J, Maguire J. Improving delivery of health and community services to welfare recipients, Columbia, South Carolina, 1997. J Public Healyh Manag Pract 1999;5(2):49-50.

丒撿僇儘儔僀僫偱GIS傪梡偄偨僺儞億僀儞僩偱偺暉巸惌嶔偺採嫙懱惂偺婰帠丅

 

238) Barcus HR, Hare T. Healthcare utilization, deprivation, and heart-related disease in Kentucky. Southeastern Geographer 2007:47(2):202-221.

丒働儞僞僢僉乕廈偱偺戅堾婰榐偐傜丄GIS偱昻崲抧堟偲怱憻幘姵偺堛椕婡娭棙梡棪偲偺娭楢傪夝愅丅

丒昻崲偲堛椕婡娭棙梡偲偼憡娭丅

丒側偍丄GIS偱偼ZIP僐乕僪偐僙儞僒僗僐乕僪抧堟傪巊梡丅

                                                                                                                               

239)Gallo G, Pallottino S. shortest path algorithms. Annalas of Operational Res 1988;13:3-79.

丒嵟抁宱楬摿掕偺偨傔偺傾儖僑儕僘儉乮僟僀僋僗僩儔朄乯偺夝愢丄徻嵶偼晄柧丅

 

240) Apparicio P, Seguin AM. Measuring the accessibility of services and facilities for residents of public housing in Montreal. Urban Studies 2006;43(1):187-211.

丒儌儞僩儕僆乕儖偺岞塩廧戭廧柉偺岞揑僒乕價僗乮暥壔丄嫵堢丄曐寬塹惗丄儗僋儗乕僔儑儞丒僗億乕僣丄嬧峴側偳乯傊偺傾僋僙僗傪GIS偵傛傞僱僢僩儚乕僋嫍棧夝愅偱嶼弌丅

丒敿悢偼傾僋僙僗偼傛偐偭偨偑丄45%偼掅偔丄5%偼挊偟偔掅偐偭偨丄

 

241)Kwan MP. Gender and individual access to urban opportunities: a study using space- time measures. Professional Geographer 1999;51(2):210-217.

丒僆僴僀僆廈偺僼儔儞僋儕儞孲偱偺敀恖抝彈偺僞僀儉儘僌傪梡偄偰丄time—space prism傪梡偄偨攦偄暔丄怑応丄偦偺懠傊偺傾僋僙僗偺夝愅丅

丒彈惈偺曽偑丄條乆側傾僋僙僗偑抝惈偵斾傋偰埆偐偭偨丅

 

242) Wong DWS, Meyer JW. A spatial decision support system approach to evaluate the efficiency of a Meals-on-Wheels program. Proffessional Geographer 1993;45(3):332-341.

丒僐僱僠僇僢僩廈偱偺崅楊幰傊偺怘昳偺戭攝僒乕價僗乮岞揑帠嬈乯偺岠棪壔傪GIS傪梡偄偰夝愅偱偒傞偙偲偺椺帵丅

 

243) Lowe JM, Sen A. Gravity model application in health planning: analysis of an urban hospital market. J Regional Sci 1996;36(3):437-461.

丒傾儊儕僇偺僀儕僲僀廈僔僇僑偺昦堾傊偺傾僋僙僗偼丄戝妛昦堾丄嫵堢昦堾偲堦斒昦堾偱堎側傝丄廳椡儌僨儖傪摫擖偡傞偙偲傪採彞丅

 

244) De Vries JJ, Nijkamp P, Rietveld P. Exponential or power distance-decay for commuting? An alternative specification. Environment and Planning A 2009;41:461-480.

丒僨儞儅乕僋偺搒巗娫嫍棧偲偺恖偺堏摦傪巜悢丄懳悢摍偱嬤帡丅

丒懳悢偱偺嫍棧偵傛傞尭悐偼傕偭偲傕fit

 

245) Arcury TA, Preisser JS, Gesler WM, Powers JM. Access to transportatkoin and health care utilization in a rural region. J Rural Health 2005;21(1):31-38.

丒僲乕僗僇儘儔僀僫偱堛椕婡娭偐傜10噏埲忋棧傟偨崅楊幰偺堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗夝愅丅

丒崅楊幰偵僒乕儀僀夝愅丅

丒塣揮柶嫋偁傞恖偼丄枬惈婜偺庴恌偑側偄恖偺2.29攞丄寬峃恌抐偺庴恌偑1.92攞偲側傞丅

 

246) Scott DM, Horner MW. The role of urban form in shaping access to opportunities. J Transport Land Use 2008;1(2):89-119.

丒傾儊儕僇偺働儞僞僢僉乕廈儖僀僔價儖巗偱偺榁恖丄掅強摼幰丄傂偲傝恊丄忈奦幰摍偺攦偄暔丄僒乕價僗丄儗僕儍乕丄廆嫵巤愝傊偺傾僋僙僗傪僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅偱斾妑丅

丒揷幧埲奜偵偮偄偰偼丄奺巤愝偺傾僋僙僗偵嵎偼側偄丅

 

247) Christie S, Fone D. Equity of access to tertiary hospitals in Wales: a travel time analysis. J Public Health Med 2003;25(4):344-350.

丒僂僃乕儖僘偱3師堛椕婡娭傊偺傾僋僙僗偵娭偡傞僱僢僩儚乕僋夝愅丅

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