The global economic crisis, household income and pre-adolescent overweight and underweight: a nationwide birth cohort study in Japan
Ueda P, Kondo N, Fujiwara T.
We hypothesized that children from lower income households and in households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008 would be at increased risk of adverse weight status during the subsequent years of economic downturn.
Data were obtained from a nationwide longitudinal survey comprising all children born during 2 weeks of 2001. For 16,403 boys and 15,206 girls, information about anthropometric measurements and household characteristics was collected from 2001 to 2011 on multiple occasions. Interactions between the crisis onset (September 2008) and household income group, as well as the crisis onset and a >30% negative income change in connection to the crisis, were assessed with respect to risk of childhood over- and underweight.
Adjusted for household and parental characteristics, boys and girls in the lower household income quartiles had a larger increase in risk of overweight after the crisis onset relative to their peers in the highest income group. (Odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for interaction term in boys=1.23 (1.02–1.24); girls=1.35 (1.23–1.49) comparing the lowest with the highest income group.) Among girls, an interaction between the crisis onset and a >30% negative change in household income with respect to risk of overweight was observed (odds ratio for interaction term=1.23 (1.09–1.38)). Girls from the highest income group had an increased risk of underweight after the crisis onset compared with girls from the lowest income group.
Boys and girls from lower household income groups and girls from households experiencing a negative income change in connection to the global economic crisis in 2008, may be at increased risk of overweight. Vulnerability to economic uncertainty could increase risk of overweight in preadolescence.
Combined effects of eating alone and living alone on unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity and underweight in older Japanese adults: Results of the JAGES
- Eating alone was associated with unhealthy dietary behaviors in older men and women.
- Eating alone was associated with obesity in older men and women.
- Eating alone was associated with underweight in older men.
- Among men, the effects of eating alone were stronger if they lived alone.
- Among women, the effects of eating alone were stronger if they lived with others.
We examined whether eating alone is associated with dietary behaviors and body weight status, and assessed the modifying effects of cohabitation status in older Japanese people. Data from the 2010 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study, with a self-reported questionnaire for 38,690 men and 43,674 women aged ≥65 years, were used. Eating status was classified as eating with others, sometimes eating alone, or exclusively eating alone. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APRs) of unhealthy dietary behaviors, obesity, and underweight, adjusting for age, education, income, disease, and dental status using Poisson regression. Overall, 16% of men and 28% of women sometimes or exclusively ate alone. Among those who exclusively ate alone, 56% of men and 68% of women lived alone. Men who exclusively ate alone were 3.74 times more likely to skip meals than men who ate with others. Among men who exclusively ate alone, those who lived alone had a higher APR than men who lived with others. Compared with subjects who ate and lived with others, the APRs of being obese (BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/m2) among men who exclusively ate alone were 1.34 (1.01–1.78) in those who lived alone and 1.17 (0.84–1.64) in those who lived with others. These combined effects of eating and living alone were weaker in women, with a potential increase in the APRs among those who ate alone despite living with others. Men who exclusively ate alone were more likely to be underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) than men who ate with others in both cohabitation statuses. Eating alone and living alone may be jointly associated with higher prevalence of obesity, underweight and unhealthy eating behaviors in men.
Our paper was published from Journal of Epidemiology and Community Heath:
Naoki Kondo, Masashige Saito, Hiroyuki Hikichi, Jun Aida, Toshiyuki Ojima, Katsunori Kondo Ichiro Kawachi
Relative deprivation in income and mortality by leading causes among older Japanese men and women: AGES cohort study