★Schmelz M et al. Eur J Neurosci. 2004:3211-8. [PubMed][Blackwel]
  • Third, capsaicin solution (2.5% w/v in 70% ethanol) was applied topically to the skin for 30 min.
★Magerl et al. J Neurosci. :Lett. 361:136-139. [PubMed][Science Direct]
★Magerl et al. Pain :74, 257-268, 1998 [PubMed][Science Direct]
★Ziegler et al. Brain:124, 2245-2257, 1999. [PubMed][CrossRef]
  • 10 mM solution of capsaicin (40 g in 12.5 l volume of normal saline containing 0.16% Tween 80
  • injected intradermally into the skin of the hand dorsum
  • burning pain
★Magerl et al. Brain:124, 1754-1764, 2001. [PubMed][CrossRef]
  • capsaicin (10%) was dissolved in ethoxydiglycol and incorporated in a base compound of acetyl alcohol, stearic acid and fatty acid ester (hydrophilic base compound; capsaicin cream prepared by Dr Sam Georgiou, Professional Arts Pharmacy, Baltimore, Md., USA).
  • topical application
  • This high concentration of capsaicin was chosen because lower concentrations, as used in commercially available formulations, provide incomplete block of capsaicin-sensitive nociceptor function even after weeks of application (Simone and Ochoa, 1991; Fuchs et al., 2000).
★Serra et al. JNP 91:2770-2781, 2004 [Blackwel]
  • 1% capsaicin dissolved in 7.5% Tween 80. A volume of 10 μl, containing 100 μg of capsaicin
  • injecting an aqueous solution containing
  • injected intradermally in the skin of the dorsum of the foot or the hand

★Simons CT, O'Mahony M, Carstens E.
Taste suppression following lingual capsaicin pre-treatment in humans.
Chem Senses. 2002 May;27(4):353-65. [PubMed][Blackwel]
  • burn of moderate intensity (109 μM)
  • low intensity (4.9 μM)
  • dissolved initially as a stock solution of 3.3 mM in a solution containing 50% ethanol
  • Working capsaicin concentrations contained 1.65% and 0.075% ethanol

★Dessirier JM, Chang HK, O'Mahony M, Carstens E.
Cross-desensitization of capsaicin-evoked oral irritation by high but not low concentrations of nicotine in human subjects.
Neurosci Lett. 2000 Aug 25;290(2):133-6. [PubMed][Science Direct]
  • A 10 ppm (33 μM) capsaicin solution was diluted in dH2O from a 0.1% w/v stock solution of capsaicin (98−100% pure; Sigma) in 95% ethanol.
  • Fifteen microliters of the capsaicin solution was pipetted on to small (78.5 mm2) filter paper disks (Whatmann, Maidstone, UK) which were then air-dried so that the ethanol vehicle evaporated.

★ Dessirier JM, O'Mahony M, Iodi-Carstens M, Carstens E.
Sensory properties of citric acid: psychophysical evidence for sensitization, self-desensitization, cross-desensitization and cross-stimulus-induced recovery following capsaicin.
Chem Senses. 2000 Dec;25(6):769-80. [PubMed][Chemos]
  • A 0.1% (w/v) capsaicin stock solution (98−100% pure) was made up in 95% ethanol and a 3 ppm (10 μM) capsaicin solution was made by diluting the stock solution with dH2O.
  • Fifteen microliters of this solution was pipetted onto small (78.5 mm2) and 40 μl onto large (176.7 mm2) filter paper disks (Whatmann, Maidstone, UK).
  • To avoid any stimulating effect of ethanol, the filter papers were air dried and then soaked with the same volumes of distilled water immediately prior to application.

★S Simons CT, Boucher Y, Carstens E.
Suppression of central taste transmission by oral capsaicin.
J Neurosci. 2003 Feb 1;23(3):978-85.
  • rat---nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS)
★Karrer T, Bartoshuk L.
Effects of capsaicin desensitization on taste in humans.
Physiol Behav. 1995 Mar;57(3):421-9.
[PubMed][Science Direct]
  • application of 100 or 10 ppm capsaicin, accompanied by daily testing of a capsaicin series (1−1000 ppm, in log steps)
  • the desensitization resulting from application of 100 ppm capsaicin without the daily capsaicin testing
★ Green BG, Schullery MT.
Stimulation of bitterness by capsaicin and menthol: differences between lingual areas innervated by the glossopharyngeal and chorda tympani nerves.
Chem Senses. 2003 Jan;28(1):45-55.
  • 100-320 microM capsaicin