Tobacco Documents Archives
The tobacco industry funded researchers have been disturbing the scientific studies of carcinogenic effects of the secondhand smoke. They engage in subversive activities on the tobacco control in Japan. Now, their attempts are disclosed by Hong and Bero.
たばこ文書とは米国たばこ病訴訟などで押収された、たばこ会社の内部文書です。カリフォルニア大学のHongとBeroが英国医学雑誌(BMJ)に発表した研究(日本語訳)により、たばこ文書には、たばこの害を知りつつも、たばこの害を隠そうとするたばこ会社の計画が詳細に記されていることが明らかにされました。現在、たばこ文書はBritish American Tobacco Documents Archiveなどで公開されており、検索や閲覧など自由に利用できます。現在、たばこ産業の内部文書はたばこの害をめぐる裁判で証拠として利用されています。
In 1981 Japanese investigator Takeshi Hirayama published a cohort study which concluded that wives of heavy smokers had up to twice the risk of developing lung cancer as wives of non-smokers and that the risk was dose related. However The tobacco companies decided to generate a study, called the Japanese spousal study, to counter the Hirayama study.
2) DRAFT : Eiji Yano and Jun Kagawa, Confounding factors in epidemiologoc studies of spousal smoke exposure in Japanese Women. They said that their study confirmed that epidemiologic studies of spousal smoking have not corrected for confounding factors must be interpreted with caution. The study was funded by tobacco industry.
3) Significance: Results of this study allow tobacco industry to investigate criticisms of the Hirayama ETS epidemiology and evaluate assumptions made by the U.S.EPA in their draft health risk assessment on ETS exposure.
5) The tobacco industry researcher Eiji Yano required $243,000 to the tobacco industry as total estimated budget. "BUDGET. This is currently a tentative estimate of the cost of completing to complete this project. All sums are in U.S. dollars."
6) Non-smoking wives of heavy smokers have a higher risk of lung cancer: a study from Japan by TAKESHI HIRAYAMA. In fact, Tobacco industry funded reserchers also knew that HIRAYAMA is correct. But they criticized HIRAYAMA study for tobacco industry.
7) Tobacco industries are close to finalizing decisions for the Japan Spousal Smoking Study. Tobacco industries have the following commitments:
8) Hirayama (1981) reported a higher risk of lung cancer among non-smoking wives of Japanese male smokers. Dr. C. Proctor (Covington and Burling), working with Drs. Eiji. Yano and J. Kagawa, proposed a two-part study of Japanese married women to assess the rate of misclassification of true smokers as non-smokers. Dr. Eiji. Yano hand-carried frozen saliva samples from Tokyo to RJR Tobacco on August 3.
9) Japanese spousal study -PSD FINAL RESULTS.

The box of samples was carried by Eiji Yano to the tobacco industry.

10) In this article Eiji Yano says that the findings of their study provide sufficient doubt to HIRAYAMA Study.
11) Tobacco industry funded reserchers say EPA should not have classified ETS as a group A carcinogen.
12) Disclosed list of tobacco industry funded reserchers.
14) How the tobacco industry responded to an influential study of the health effects of secondhand smoke Mi-Kyung Hong, Lisa A Bero (Japanese Here)
15) Tobacco industry funded researchers published the study "Marriage to a smoker may not be a valid marker of exposure in studies relating environmental tobacco smoke to risk of lung cancer in Japanese non-smoking women". And they say that there is no direct evidence that workplace environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases lung cancer risk. The Acknowledgements say "I gratefully acknowledge financial support from several companies of the tobacco industry. I am extremely grateful to Dr. Eiji Yano of Teikyo University for assistance provided in Japan, and to Emu Efu Co. Ltd. for help in sample collection and analysis. I also thank Dr. John Fry for assistance in statistical analysis, Dr. Francis Roe for numerous helpful comments, and Mrs. Pauline Wassell and Mrs. Diane Morris for typing the various drafts".

Let's See Acknowledgements!

Dr Eiji Yano's contribution and the tobacco industry's financial support were described.

The conclusions of review articles are strongly associated with the affiliations of their authors. Authors of review articles should disclose potential financial conflicts of interest, and readers of review articles should consider authors' affiliations when deciding how to judge an article's conclusions. 31)

16) A letter from Tobacco industries to Eiji Yano and Jun Kagawa. They were in close contact each other for their attempts.


Tobacco industry said to Eiji yano and Jun Kagawa "For the Japanese keynote presenters, we would like to limit honorarium payments to U.S. $5,000.

For panelists, the honorarium we have in mind is U.S. $1,000. We would appreciate your letting us know on Monday whether you think the honorarium levels we are proposing are reasonable."
17) Tobacco industries planned TOKYO Environmental Tobacco Smoke SYMPOSIUM with tobacco industry funded researchers. They show timetable for the symposium in precisely. They wanted to submit to Japanese journal article summarizing the symposium conclusions. And they planned to distribute of Printed Symposium Monograph.

18) Japan made a great progress in tobacco control.


Yoshitaka Kiriake, Physician
Director of Public Health Network in Japan


When Hong and Bero published their study "How the tobacco industry responded to an influential study of the health effects of secondhand smoke" in 2002, I was supporting the law suit against a railway company to get smoke-free environment for workers and passengers in Japan. At that time, non-smokers had been annoyed by secondhand smoke for a long time regardless of our many claims. The company had been denying the harmful effects of second hand smoke, because tobacco industry affiliated authors were publishing many studies which denied the health effects of tobacco smoke and these studies were used for the many other tobacco-related law suits by many companies to reject the control of secondhand smoke. So I carefully read the Hong and Bero study and accessed to the tobacco documents. I thought Hong and Bero's study was correct, because I found that the company had used many studies produced by tobacco industry affiliated authors to reject tobacco control. Therefore I decided to use the tobacco documents which described the conspiracy of tobacco industry affiliated author for the law suit. Then I and lawyers submitted the evidence 29) to the court. Amazingly, I was successful in having the court admit the necessity of controlling secondhand smoke on January 3, 2005. The court decided that tobacco industry affiliated authors were unreliable and the studies produced by them were incredible. This judgment was an epoch-making success in Japan. It enabled us to introduce more effective tobacco control measures very smoothly. Thanks to Hong and Bero, Japan made a great progress in tobacco control.


(19) The judgment ( in japanese )

A commentary


Tobacco documents revealed a great deception on tobacco control in Japan.


By Yoshitaka Kiriake 

Director of Public Health Network in Japan , 18 April 2010


In Japan, we have been annoyed by Eiji Yano's disturbance of the Tobacco Control for a long time.He has been acting misleading campaigns which repeat disinformation saying that Hirayama study was unreliable because of its confounding factors and it should be reexamined (14, 29).

He has criticized anti-tobacco society and public health officers too, because they have relied upon Hirayama study and tobacco control in Japan seemed to gain a great success.

In Japan, Eiji Yano has repeated disinformation that anti-tobacco society and public health officerufs statements were unreliable. Obviously His opinions are comfortable only for tobacco industry.


While Eiji Yano says he had known that "Hirayama study is correct" through their own investigation in 1990's. Eiji Yano had never published correct conclusions. It seems that he had never concerned about public health or he had no idea to publish correct conclusions.

Exactly, he had proposed Japanese Spousal Study project to support tobacco industry's attempts to refute Hirayama study (1).


As a result of their conspiracy, carcinogenic effects of secondhand smoke had been concealed for a long time until our epoch-making tobacco law suit had completed in Japan in 2005 (18).

During the low suit, we showed him the evidence (14, 20) and requested Eiji Yano to stop the projects (14) which disturbing the risk assessments of passive smoking in Japan (24, 25, 26, 27, 28).

However, Eiji Yano had never accepted our requests, but he has continued to interfere with Tobacco Control in Japan by repeatedly publishing libelous statements against Japanese public health officers and anti-tobacco activists on his Japanese websites. He says that "Tobacco control is a gag, it infringes on academic freedom, it violates a freedom of opinion and it will lead Japan to the Worldwide War". So I and famous Japanese anti-tobacco activists such as Nobuko Nakano, Kyoichi Miyazaki, Bungaku Watanabe had requested the top of British American Tobacco Japan not to pay any money for Eiji Yano at 27 May 2003 (27).


Though, Eiji Yano says that he has got no money from tobacco industry, many documents show that he had required lots of money to the tobacco industry (1, 5, 16). Furthermore, Eiji Yano had sent people no warnings against carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoke until our tobacco law suit had completed by us (19).


Eiji Yano said that he had no more relationship with tobacco industry after Japanese spousal study project had been completed, but it was proven untrue too (16). He had never worked for tobacco control in Japan, but Eiji Yano has continued cooperation with tobacco industry (16, 17) and attacked anti-tobacco activists in Japan for more than ten years on his website.

So we should strongly recognize that tobacco industry funded researcher interference with tobacco control and knowingly duped us (21, 22, 23).




Press Release WHO/29 9 March 1998


The World Health Organization (WHO) has been publicly accused of suppressing information. Its opponents say that WHO has withheld from publication its own report that was aimed at but supposedly failed to scientifically prove that there is an association between passive smoking, or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and a number of diseases, lung cancer in particular. Both statements are untrue.



Press Release WHO/38 30 May 2000


It is sold as a lifestyle, as the taste of freedom and sophistication. Children, sometimes as young as nine, are lured into the tobacco habit by aggressive advertising and marketing. Everyday, 11,000 people die due to a tobacco-related disease. Most of today's 1.2 billion smokers started before they were eighteen...

Publication date: 2009, Languages: English, ISBN: 978 924 159734
The tobacco industry has historically employed a multitude of tactics to shape and influence tobacco control policy. The tobacco industry has used its economic power, lobbying and marketing machinery, and manipulation of the media to discredit scientific research and influence governments in order to propagate the sale and distribution of its deadly product.  Furthermore, the tobacco industry continues to inject large philanthropic contributions into social programs worldwide to create a positive public image under the guise of corporate social responsibility.  This document describes the spectrum of tobacco industry practices that interfere with tobacco control.  As an outcome of the first meeting of tobacco industry monitoring experts convened by WHO at the offices of PAHO in October 2007, this report exposes these practices and provides the Contracting Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and other WHO Member States the background and contextual information that may assist in implementing the WHO FCTC Article 5.3 guidelines against tobacco industry interference with tobacco control.

24)Tsuda T. Igakusha ha Kogaijiken de Nani wo Shitekitanoka (How have the Medical Academes acted toward Environmental Problems?). Tokyo: Iwanami-shoten, 2004.

Sono IH (Kobe, Hyogo). An open inquiry was sent to Mr. Eiji Yano, Teikyo University.

26)Kakezono H (Kashima, Saga). An open inquiry to president of Teikyo University: On the rotten practice of Eiji Yano, Professor in Medical School.

27)Watanabe B. A paper to conceal the harm of passive smoking: Did Professor Eiji Yano, Teikyo University make commitment? Kin-en Journal (Journal for Smoking Cessation) No 148. 1 March 2003. Tabako Mondai Joho Senta (Information Centre for Tobacco Problems) Tokyo.

28)Yamaoka M (Sumoto, Hyogo). A confidential letter to President of Teikyo University: An inquiry to the research of a faculty in your school (in Japanese). April 21, 2003.

29)Kiriake Yoshitaka. A project to conceal hazardous effects of passive smoking. Tokyo Local Court 1998 (wa) No 10379 Damage Compensation Claim for Tobacco Diseases. Evidence (Kou) No. 112. February 14, 2003 


30)Eiji Yano's involvement to the projyect was disclosed and submitted to Osaka Local Court 2003 Feburary 26


31)Yoshitaka Kiriake. Anti-tobacco activists have made forceful representations to the top of British American Tobacco Japan not to pay any money for Eiji Yano


These articles have been cited by Tobacco Control.

British American Tobacco Documents Archive
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