Japanese Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery Vol49,No.4

Surgical Strategy for Mitral Valve Infective Endocarditis with Concomitant Cerebral Hemorrhage and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Syndrome:Decompressive Craniotomy before Open-Heart Surgery
Hikaru Uchiyama* Kojiro Furukawa* Takuya Nishijima*
Yuichiro Hirata* Tatsushi Onzuka* Eiki Tayama*
Shigeki Morita*

(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Clinical Research Institute, National Hospital Organization Kyushu Medical Center*, Fukuoka, Japan)

A 51-year-old woman presented with a high fever and weakness and was diagnosed with mitral valve infective endocarditis. Medical treatment was unsuccessful, and the patient developed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, multiple cerebral infarctions, and massive cerebral hemorrhage. She was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment. On admission, she had motor aphasia and right-sided hemiplegia. Echocardiography showed mild mitral regurgitation with a huge mobile vegetation measuring greater than 20 mm on the anterior leaflets. Head CT showed a huge cerebral hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe. Chest radiography revealed severe pulmonary congestion, and laboratory data showed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. Despite medical treatment, the pulmonary congestion worsened. There were concerns that a fatal cerebral infarction would develop, and so urgent open-heart surgery was performed. On the day after the cerebral hemorrhage had occurred, hematoma removal and decompressive craniotomy were performed to reduce the risks associated with cardiopulmonary bypass. Four days after the craniotomy, mitral valve plasty was performed following the complete excision of the infected tissue. Heparin was administered at our normal dosage as an anticoagulant during cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative head CT showed no aggravation of the preoperative cerebral lesion. The patient still had symptomatic epilepsy and difficulty performing exact movements with her right hand, but she was able to walk unaided after 1 year of rehabilitation. Generally, early surgery for infective endocarditis is not recommended if the patient has concomitant cerebral hemorrhage;our strategy may be the safest option for patients in such a serious condition.


Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 49:196-199(2020)

Keywords:infective endocarditis;DIC;cerebral hemorrhage;decompressive craniotomy

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