A Case of Widespread Stanford Type A Chronic Aortic Dissection Treated with Arch Replacement Using Transapical Aortic Cannulation, the Arch-First Technique, and Anastomosis of Both Lumens

(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, and Department of Cardiology*, Cardiovascular Center, Oita Oka Hospital, Oita, Japan)

Satoshi Takebayashi Hidenori Sako Tetsushi Takayama
Keiji Oka Tetsuo Hadama Yoichi Tatsukawa*
The patient was a 61-year-old woman. In April 2005, she suffered a cerebral infarction and became paralyzed on the right side. In June 2005, a stent graft was placed to treat significant stenosis of the right coronary artery. Computed tomography(CT)in October 2006 revealed widespread patent aortic dissection in both the true and false lumens, extending from the origin of the ascending aorta to the three arch branches and both femoral arteries. Preoperative coronary angiography also showed occlusion of the left anterior descending branch. As a result of these findings, widespread Stanford type A chronic aortic dissection with coronary artery disease was diagnosed, and surgery was performed in February 2007. Brachiocephalic artery dissection and severe stenosis of the right subclavian artery were present, and the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery were also dissected distally. In addition, both the true and false lumens were patent distal to the aortic arch, with the major abdominal branch bifurcating from both lumens and the dissection extending to the femoral artery, requiring cannulation of both lumens. During surgery, extracorporeal circulation was established by means of blood removal from the right atrium, transapical aortic cannulation, and cannulation of both luminens of the left femoral artery, in an effort to prevent malperfusion due to hypothermia. For revascularization, a Y-shaped artificial blood vessel was used to reconstruct the three arch branches first(the arch-first technique), after which an I-shaped artificial blood vessel was used to form anastomoses distally with both lumens, ensuring perfusion to the false lumen. The proximal anastomosis was then formed, and finally, a single coronary artery bypass graft(CABG)branch was performed using a great saphenous vein graft. No postoperative complications were encountered, and CT showed good blood flow through both luminens below the graft and aortic arch. The patient was discharged from hospital and returned home in an anbulatory condition independently 18 days postoperatively. In this case of widespread type A chronic aortic dissection, the cannulation site was selected and the order of reconstruction and methods of anastomosis were carefully chosen to avoid cardiac malperfusion during arch replacement, resulting in a good outcome.
  Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 39:211-215(2010)

Keywords:chronic aortic dissection, transapical aortic cannulation, arch-first technique, anastomosis of both luminens