Surgical Treatment of Acute Abdominal Aortic Occlusion

(Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Oita Prefectural Hospital, Oita, Japan)

Seiichi Tada Kenta Izumi Takahumi Yamada
Acute aortic occlusion is an infrequently observed but frequently fatal event requiring prompt surgical treatment. We encountered 4 cases of acute non-aneurysmal abdominal aortic occlusion caused by different mechanisms and reviewed the literature concerning surgical management. The patients consisted of 2 men and 2 women with a mean age of 68.7}5.7 years (range, 63 to 75 years). Three of the 4 patients had a history of atrial fibrillation. Clinical presentations included acute limb ischemia and neurological deficit in all 4 cases. The mechanisms of acute aortic occlusion were mainly divided into embolisms and thrombosis related to aortoiliac occlusive disease. Operation was done at mean intervals of 8.6 h (range, 5 to 11h). Two patients underwent transfemoral thrombectomy under local anesthesia, one thromboendarterectomy under laparotomy on hemodialysis, and one axillobifemoral bypass procedure. One patient had to undergo fasciotomy immediately because of compartment syndrome, 2 other patients needed additional procedures (one had femoro-popliteal bypass and the other had mitral valve replacement). The perioperative mortality rate was 25%, related to massive cerebral infarction. The outcomes of these patients depend on prompt diagnosis, systemic heparinization and early revascularization by appropriate operation; initial attempt of transfemoral thrombectomy, and axillobifemoral bypass in high risk patients. After revascularization, patients must be carefully monitored for reperfusion syndrome, myonephropathic metabolic syndrome, acute renal failure and compartment syndrome.
@Jpn. J. Cardiovasc. Surg. 33: 375-381 (2004)