Yoshihisa Kitamura1,*, Shun Shimohama2, Akinori
Akaike3 and Takashi Taniguchi1
1Department of Neurobiology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto 607-8412, Japan
2Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, and 3Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
Abstract: In contrast to Alzheimer's disease, effective therapeutic options are available for Parkinson's disease. Therapy of dopamine replacement such as levodopa improves the symptoms of this disease, but does not inhibit neurodegeneration in the substantia nigra. Numerous studies have suggested that endogenous and environmental neurotoxins, and oxidative stress may participate in this disease, but the detailed mechanisms are still unclear. Recent genetic studies in familial Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism show several gene mutations. This new information regarding pathogenesis offers novel prospects for therapy. To develop novel neuroprotective drugs, it is necessary to have a model for each type of parkinsonism. This review summarizes current findings regarding parkinsonian models in vertebrates and invertebrates and discusses their value.
Keywords: Parkinsonian model, MPTP, Gene knockout mice, Transgenic animal, Invertebrate
Copyrightę The Japanese Pharmacological Society 2000
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