Fumitaka Ushikubi1,*, Yukihiko Sugimoto2, Atsushi
Ichikawa2 and Shuh Narumiya3
1Department╩of Pharmacology, Asahikawa Medical College, Midorigaoka-Higashi 2-1-1-1, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan
2Department╩of Physiological Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, and 3Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8315, Japan
* To whom correspondence should be addressed.
Abstract: The actions of prostanoids in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions have been being examined using mice lacking different prostanoid receptors. Prostaglandin (PG)╩I2 worked not only as a mediator of inflammation but also as an antithrombotic agent. PGF2a was found to be an essential inducer of labor. Several important actions of PGE2 are exerted via each of the four PGE2 receptor subtypes: EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4. PGE2 participated in colon carcinogenesis via the EP1. PGE2 also participates in ovulation and fertilization and contributes to the control of blood pressure under high-salt intake via the EP2. PGE2 worked as a mediator of febrile responses to both endogenous and exogenous pyrogens and as a regulator of bicarbonate secretion induced by acid-stimulation in the duodenum via the EP3. It regulated the closure of ductus arteriosus and showed bone resorbing action via the EP4. PGD2 was found to be a mediator of allergic asthma. These studies have revealed important roles of prostanoids, some of which had not previously been known.
Keywords: Prostanoid, Prostaglandin, Thromboxane, Prostanoid receptor, Knock-out mouse