Yukio Koide, Toshi Nagata, Atsushi Yoshida and Masato Uchijima
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192, Japan
Abstract: DNA vaccination or genetic immunization is a rapidly developing technology that offers new approaches for the prevention and therapy of disease. Regarding the inoculation method of DNA vaccine, we recommend the gene gun delivery system, which is a highly reliable method compared to intramuscular inoculation. DNA vaccines could have potential advantages over other types of vaccines in that these vaccines can induce strong cellular immune responses, cytotoxic T╩lymphocytes and type╩1 helper╩T cells, without resorting to live organisms or complicated protein formulation. The cellular immune responses are especially required for the protection against infections with intracellular pathogens such as viruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and protection against cancers, suggesting that they seem to be suitable targets of DNA vaccines. We describe here that their application to bacterial infections requires optimization of codon usage in the DNA vaccines to the host animal to improve translational efficiencies of the bacteria genes. DNA vaccines for a variety of pathogens and cancers have now entered phase╩I/II human clinical trials.
Keywords: DNA vaccine, Plasmid, Cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CpG motif